1. Activity-related headache - Historical note and nomenclature
and Jokl 1977). The high altitude was an obvious predisposing factor, as were heat, humidity, and perhaps lack of training. Migraine after effort tended to occur with prolonged running rather than sprints. These highly conditioned athletes developed scotomata, unilateral retro-orbital pain, nausea and vomiting, and, in some cases, a striking
2. Transient global amnesia - References cited
global amnesia at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 2008:9(3):239-40
Caffarra P, Moretti G, Mazzucchi A, Parma M. Neuropsychological testing during a transient global amnesia episode and its follow-up. Acta Neurolog Scand 1981;63(1):44-50.
Cattaino G, Pomes A, Querin F, Cecotto C. Ethmoidal meningioma revealed by transient global
3. Transient global amnesia - Etiology
amnesia associated with high altitude, and consequently reduced oxygen availability, has been reported (Bucuk et al 2008); another case relates it with prolonged underwater swimming (Jeong e tal 2010), and in another reported case transient global amnesia is observed after prolonged and abnormal head posture (Borelli et al 2011).
4. Hyperventilation syndrome - Differential diagnosis
asthma, and heat and altitude acclimatization (Brashear 1983; Block and Szidon 1994).
Neurologic disorders that may cause hyperventilation include Rett syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Reye syndrome, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, biotin-dependent multiple carboxylase deficiency, malignant hyperthermia, brainstem tumor, primary
5. Cerebral venous thrombosis - Etiology
to the jugular vein, high altitude exposure (Cheng et al 2009), and electrical injury have also been associated with cerebral venous thrombosis (Saito and Tanaka 2003). Intracranial hypotension and low CSF pressure syndromes have been associated with cerebral venous thrombosis, although the pathophysiologic links require further elucidation
6. Activity-related headache - Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
associated with high altitude and fever. Of interest, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime SPECT of a young man with exertional headache revealed transient hypoperfusion in the frontal lobes bilaterally (Basoglu et al 1996). Two recent reports have suggested that the primary exertional headache experienced by some patients could be a venous
7. Cerebral venous thrombosis - References cited
infarction during a high altitude expedition. Singapore Med J 2009;50:e306-8.
Coutinho JM, Ferro JM, Canhao P, et al. Unfractionated or low-molecular weight heparin for the treatment of cerebral venous thrombosis. Stroke 2010;41(11):2575-80.
Coutinho JM, Majoie CB, Coert BA, Stam J. Decompressive hemicraniectomy in cerebral sinus