Parkinsonism Center

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by abnormalities of posture, balance, and mobility, accompanied by muscular rigidity and course tremor of the forearms. Tremor may be lacking in other forms of parkinsonism. Disorders in this category are referred to as extrapyramidal disorders. PD is sometimes spelled as (Parkinson's disease and Parkinsons disease).

Key Articles

Advanced Parkinson disease
Dementia in Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease
Sleep and parkinsonism

Other Disorders with Parkinsonism

Corticobasal degeneration
Dementia with Lewy bodies
Drug-induced parkinsonism
Encephalitis lethargica
Multiple system atrophy
Progressive supranuclear palsy

Falls and their Prevention

Related Articles

Deep brain stimulation in movement disorders
Drug-induced neurologic disorders
Levodopa-related dyskinesias and motor fluctuations
Motor aspects of gait disorders
Parkinson disease quality-of-care measures

Disorders Sometimes Confused with Parkinson Disease

Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration
Acute drug-induced movement disorders
Dopa-responsive dystonia
Essential tremor
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification
Lacunar infarction
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus
Tardive dystonia

Treatment Information

Coenzyme Q10

External Resources

AAN Guidelines: Movement Disorders
Clinical Trials: Parkinsonian Disorders
European Parkinson’s Disease Association
FDA Advisory: Carbidopa/Levodopa and Entacapone - Ongoing Safety Review (2010)
National Parkinson Foundation
Parkinson’s Disease Foundation
Testing: LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease
Testing: MAPT-Related Disorders
Testing: Parkin Type of Juvenile Parkinson Disease
Testing: PINK1-Related Parkinson Disease
Testing: Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism
Testing: X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Syndrome
Video: Cycling for Freezing Gait in Parkinson’s Disease
Video: Parkinson Disease - Progress and Promise in Stem Cell Research


Parkinsons Community Forum
Support for patients with Parkinson disease and related neurological disorders. Discussions among patients, families, caregivers and professionals on topics related to diagnosis, treatment, and activities of daily living.


Team uses exosomes to deliver Parkinson meds directly to brain
May 05, 2015
Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have used exosomes from immune cells and successfully loaded them with the enzyme catalase, a potent antioxidant that counters the neuron-killing inflammation responsible for Parkinson and other degenerative neurologic disorders. Their work was published in the Journal of Controlled Release.
How deep-brain stimulation reshapes neural circuits in Parkinson disease
Apr 12, 2015
UC San Francisco scientists have discovered a possible mechanism for how deep-brain stimulation exerts its therapeutic effects. The new research, published online today in Nature Neuroscience, reveals that deep-brain stimulation keeps Parkinson disease symptoms in check by reducing excessive synchronization of brain activity in the motor cortex.
Could eating peppers prevent Parkinson disease?
May 09, 2013
New research reveals that Solanaceae—a flowering plant family with some species producing foods that are edible sources of nicotine—may provide a protective effect against Parkinson disease. The study appearing today in Annals of Neurology, suggests that eating foods that contain even a small amount of nicotine, such as peppers and tomatoes, may reduce risk of developing Parkinson disease.
Seeing a neurologist helps people with Parkinson disease live longer
Aug 11, 2011
People with Parkinson disease who go to a neurologist for their care are more likely to live longer, less likely to be placed in a nursing home, and less likely to break a hip than people who go to a primary care physician, according to a study published in the August 10, 2011, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
REM sleep behavior disorder is a risk factor for Parkinson disease
Jul 29, 2011
A new study used brain SPECT to conclude that the levels of dopamine in the brain are quickly lowering over the years in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.
Scientist converts human skin cells into functional brain cells
Jul 28, 2011
A paper being published online today in the scientific journal Cell Stem Cell reveals efficient and robust methods for transforming adult skin cells into neurons that are capable of transmitting brain signals, marking one of the first documented experiments for transforming an adult human's skin cells into functioning brain cells.
Increased risk of Parkinson disease in methamphetamine users
Jul 26, 2011
People who abused methamphetamine or other amphetamine-like stimulants were more likely to develop Parkinson disease than those who did not, reports a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.
New Parkinson disease gene identified
Jul 22, 2011
A team of researchers at the University Department of Neurology of the Medical University of Vienna has succeeded in identifying a gene that is mutated in individuals with Parkinson disease.
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