Parkinsonism Center

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by abnormalities of posture, balance, and mobility, accompanied by muscular rigidity and course tremor of the forearms. Tremor may be lacking in other forms of parkinsonism. Disorders in this category are referred to as extrapyramidal disorders. PD is sometimes spelled as (Parkinson's disease and Parkinsons disease).

Key Articles

Advanced Parkinson disease
Dementia in Parkinson disease
Hallucinations in Parkinson disease
Parkinson disease
Pathologic gambling with dopamine agonist therapy in patients with Parkinson disease
Sleep and parkinsonism

Other Disorders with Parkinsonism

Corticobasal degeneration
Dementia with Lewy bodies
Drug-induced parkinsonism
Encephalitis lethargica
Multiple system atrophy
Progressive supranuclear palsy

Falls and their Prevention

Falls and fractures associated with bradykinetic rigid syndromes
Falls and injuries from falls among older adults
Falls with injury in noninstitutionalized adults

Related Articles

Basal ganglia: functional anatomy and neuropharmacology
Compulsive use of dopamine replacement therapy
Deep brain stimulation in movement disorders
Drug-induced neurologic disorders
Epidemiology of movement disorders
Evaluation and management of orthostatic hypotension
Genetics of movement disorders
Levodopa-related dyskinesias and motor fluctuations
Motor aspects of gait disorders
Parkinson disease quality-of-care measures
Physical countermaneuvers for orthostatic hypotension
Red flags for multiple system atrophy
Vitamin E supplementation: are the benefits worth the risks?

Disorders Sometimes Confused with Parkinson Disease

Acquired hepatocerebral degeneration
Acute drug-induced movement disorders
Dopa-responsive dystonia
Essential tremor
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification
Lacunar infarction
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus
Tardive dystonia

Treatment Information

Coenzyme Q10

External Resources

AAN Guidelines: Movement Disorders
Clinical Trials: Parkinsonian Disorders
European Parkinson’s Disease Association
FDA Advisory: Carbidopa/Levodopa and Entacapone - Ongoing Safety Review (2010)
National Parkinson Foundation
Parkinson’s Disease Foundation
Testing: LRRK2-Related Parkinson Disease
Testing: MAPT-Related Disorders
Testing: Parkin Type of Juvenile Parkinson Disease
Testing: PINK1-Related Parkinson Disease
Testing: Rapid-Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism
Testing: X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism Syndrome
Video: Cycling for Freezing Gait in Parkinson’s Disease
Video: Parkinson Disease - Progress and Promise in Stem Cell Research


Parkinsons Community Forum
Support for patients with Parkinson disease and related neurological disorders. Discussions among patients, families, caregivers and professionals on topics related to diagnosis, treatment, and activities of daily living.


Study supports urate protection against Parkinson disease, hints at novel mechanism
May 23, 2012
Use of the antioxidant urate to protect against the neurodegeneration caused by Parkinson disease appears to rely on more than urate's ability to protect against oxidative damage. In the May issue of the open-access journal PLoS One, researchers describe experiments suggesting the involvement of a novel mechanism in urate's protection of cultured brain cells against Parkinson-like damage.
Gene variants that speed Parkinson progression
May 16, 2012
UCLA researchers may have found a key to determining which Parkinson disease patients will experience a more rapid decline in motor function, sparking hopes for the development of new therapies and helping identify those who could benefit most from early intervention.
Vitamin K2: new hope for Parkinson patients?
May 11, 2012
A neuroscientist has succeeded in undoing the effect of one of the genetic defects that leads to Parkinson disease using vitamin K2. This research was done in collaboration with colleagues from Northern Illinois University and will be published on the website of Science.
Researcher developing therapy to halt symptoms in Parkinson patients
May 02, 2012
A therapy based on the protective effects of DJ-1 was tested on mice utilizing well-established toxic and genetic models for Parkinson disease. From both a behavioral and biochemical standpoint, the mice that received the peptide treatment showed remarkable improvement.
Parkinson protein causes disease spread in animal model
Apr 17, 2012
A study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine reports that brain tissue from a Parkinson disease mouse model, as well as synthetically produced alpha-synuclein fibrils, injected into young, symptom-free Parkinson disease mice led to spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology.
Diagnosis of concomitant Alzheimer disease in patients with Parkinson disease dementia
Apr 17, 2012
A team of scientists has found that Parkinson disease with coexistent Alzheimer disease patients have much denser accumulations of amyloid plaques in the striatal area of the brain than Parkinson disease patients. The results suggest that recently developed imaging techniques may be able to identify striatal amyloid plaques in the living brain and could be useful for distinguishing Parkinson disease from Parkinson disease with coexistent Alzheimer disease.
Drugs may ease depression in Parkinson disase without worsening motor problems
Apr 13, 2012
Certain antidepressants appear to decrease depression in people with Parkinson disease without worsening motor problems, according to a study published in the April 11, 2012, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
Persistent ocular tremors appear to be associated with Parkinson disease
Apr 10, 2012
Persistent ocular tremors that prevent eye stability during fixation appear to be common among patients with Parkinson disease suggesting that precise oculomotor testing could provide an early physiological biomarker for diagnosing Parkinson disease, according to a report published Online First by Archives of Neurology.
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