Multiple Sclerosis Center

Multiple sclerosis is a highly variable disorder that usually presents with recurrent, painless episodes of neurologic symptoms at 15 to 50 years of age.

Comprehensive Article

Multiple sclerosis
This comprehensive clinical reference includes information on many different areas of MS, including:

Key Articles

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis
Immunomodulatory agents in multiple sclerosis: clinical trials and therapy
Multiple sclerosis: biological differences in children and adults
Multiple sclerosis: neurobehavioral aspects
Multiple sclerosis: treatment of its symptoms
Natalizumab and PML in MS
Sleep and multiple sclerosis

Early Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

The following disorders may be early manifestations of multiple sclerosis or may never progress beyond their initial manifestations.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Balo concentric sclerosis
Clinically isolated syndrome
Optic neuritis
Transverse myelitis

Unusual Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

Pain, headache, and oromandibular structures
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis

Disorders Sometimes Confused with MS

The manifestations of multiple sclerosis are very variable. There are therefore many other disorders that can be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. The greatest impostor is neuromyelitis optica.
Alexander disease
Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination
Hemiplegic migraine
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy
Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment
The white matter lesions seen in this disorder may be cited in MRI reports as evidence for multiple sclerosis.
Susac syndrome

Treatment Information

Glatiramer acetate
Interferon beta 1a
Interferon beta 1b
Intrathecal baclofen

External Resources

AAN Guideline: Neutralizing Antibodies to Interferon-beta: Clinical and Radiographic Impact
AAN Guidelines: Multiple Sclerosis
EFNS Guidelines On the Use of Neuroimaging In the Management Of Multiple Sclerosis
FDA Advisory: Natalizumab - Update of Healthcare Professional Information
MS Society of Canada
MS Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
Multiple Sclerosis International Federation
National MS Society: Professional Resource Center
NICE Guideline: Management of Multiple Sclerosis in Primary and Secondary Care
Video: Multiple sclerosis - histopathology spinal cord
Video: Neuromyelitis optica
Video: Patient Guide to Managing MS


Multiple Sclerosis Community Forum
Support for patients with multiple sclerosis and related neurological disorders. Discussions among patients, families, caregivers and professionals on topics related to diagnosis, treatment, and activities of daily living.


Researchers identify chemical compound that decreases effects of multiple sclerosis
Dec 02, 2014
A team of researchers reports in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that when indazole chloride is administered on transgenic mice, it can potentially halt the symptoms of MS and reverse ongoing motor deficit. In addition, the study shows that indazole chloride can remyelinate axons which have gotten injured.
Study blocks multiple sclerosis relapses in mice
Nov 12, 2014
In a new study, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania and co-investigators have identified a key protein that is able to reduce the severity of a disease equivalent to multiple sclerosis in mice. This molecule, Del-1, is the same regulatory protein that has been found to prevent inflammation and bone loss in a mouse model of gum disease.
Intestinal barrier damage in multiple sclerosis
Sep 04, 2014
A new study investigates whether the function of the intestines is attacked in multiple sclerosis. The results, obtained from a disease model of multiple sclerosis in mice, shows inflammation and changes in the barrier function of the intestines early in the course of the disease. The study has been published in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.
Researchers publish first study of brain activation in multiple sclerosis using fNIRS
Aug 28, 2014
Using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), Kessler Foundation researchers have shown differential brain activation patterns between people with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls. This is the first multiple sclerosis study in which brain activation was studied using fNIRS while participants performed a cognitive task. The article was published online in Brain Imaging and Behavior.
Scientists one step closer to cell therapy for multiple sclerosis patients
Jul 25, 2014
For the first time, scientists generated induced pluripotent stem cells lines from skin samples of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis and further, they developed an accelerated protocol to induce these stem cells into becoming oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system implicated in multiple sclerosis and many other diseases.
Study helps explain why multiple sclerosis is more common in women
May 08, 2014
Studying mice and people, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis have found that females susceptible to multiple sclerosis produce higher levels of a blood vessel receptor protein, S1PR2, than males and that the protein is present at even higher levels in the brain areas that multiple sclerosis typically damages.
Study suggests targeting B cells may help with multiple sclerosis
Apr 28, 2014
A new study suggests that targeting B cells, which are a type of white blood cell in the immune system, may be associated with reduced disease activity for people with multiple sclerosis. The study will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 66th Annual Meeting in Philadelphia, April 26 to May 3, 2014.
Newly identified blood cells fight brain inflammation
Feb 17, 2014
Researchers have identified a new type of regulatory blood cells that can combat hyperactive T-cells in blood from patients with multiple sclerosis. By stimulating the regulatory blood cells, the researchers significantly decreased the level of brain inflammation and disease in a biological model. The results are published in the journal Nature Medicine.
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