Multiple Sclerosis Center

Multiple sclerosis is a highly variable disorder that usually presents with recurrent, painless episodes of neurologic symptoms at 15 to 50 years of age.

Comprehensive Article

Multiple sclerosis
This comprehensive clinical reference includes information on many different areas of MS, including:

Key Articles

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis
Immunomodulatory agents in multiple sclerosis: clinical trials and therapy
Multiple sclerosis: biological differences in children and adults
Multiple sclerosis: neurobehavioral aspects
Multiple sclerosis: treatment of its symptoms
Natalizumab and PML in MS
Sleep and multiple sclerosis

Early Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

The following disorders may be early manifestations of multiple sclerosis or may never progress beyond their initial manifestations.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Balo concentric sclerosis
Clinically isolated syndrome
Optic neuritis
Transverse myelitis

Unusual Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

Pain, headache, and oromandibular structures

Disorders Sometimes Confused with MS

The manifestations of multiple sclerosis are very variable. There are therefore many other disorders that can be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. The greatest impostor is neuromyelitis optica.
Alexander disease
Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination
Hemiplegic migraine
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy
Neuromyelitis optica
(Devic disease)
Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment
The white matter lesions seen in this disorder may be cited in MRI reports as evidence for multiple sclerosis.
Susac syndrome

Treatment Information

Glatiramer acetate
Interferon beta 1a
Interferon beta 1b
Intrathecal baclofen

External Resources

AAN Guideline: Neutralizing Antibodies to Interferon-beta: Clinical and Radiographic Impact
AAN Guidelines: Multiple Sclerosis
EFNS Guidelines On the Use of Neuroimaging In the Management Of Multiple Sclerosis
FDA Advisory: Natalizumab - Update of Healthcare Professional Information
MS Society of Canada
MS Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
Multiple Sclerosis International Federation
National MS Society: Professional Resource Center
NICE Guideline: Management of Multiple Sclerosis in Primary and Secondary Care
Video: Multiple sclerosis - histopathology spinal cord
Video: Neuromyelitis optica
Video: Patient Guide to Managing MS


Multiple Sclerosis Community Forum
Support for patients with multiple sclerosis and related neurological disorders. Discussions among patients, families, caregivers and professionals on topics related to diagnosis, treatment, and activities of daily living.


High salt intake could be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis
Aug 05, 2015
Here's another reason to put the salt shaker down: new research in mice shows that diets high in sodium may be a novel risk factor in the development of multiple sclerosis by influencing immune cells that cause the disease. This finding was published in the August 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal.
Panel outlines new diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica
Jul 09, 2015
New diagnostic criteria were introduced this week for neuromyelitis optica, now called neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD)—an inflammatory disease of the CNS that is sometimes mistaken for multiple sclerosis. An international consensus panel reviewed the medical literature and recent scientific discoveries relating to NMOSD to develop new diagnostic criteria.
Study reveals brain network responsible for cognitive changes in multiple sclerosis
Jul 08, 2015
New findings published yesterday in Neuropsychology reveal that decreased connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior brain regions are to blame for the central deficit common to the various cognitive changes associated with multiple sclerosis—slowed cognitive speed.
Discovery of a treatment to block the progression of multiple sclerosis
May 19, 2015
A drug that could halt the progression of multiple sclerosis may soon be developed thanks to a discovery by a team at the CHUM Research Centre and the University of Montreal. The researchers have identified a molecule called MCAM, and they have shown that blocking this molecule could delay the onset of the disease and significantly slow its progression. These encouraging results from in vitro tests in humans and in vivo tests in mice were published today in the Annals of Neurology.
Study implicates new gene in multiple sclerosis disease activity
May 15, 2015
A new study led by investigators at Brigham and Women's Hospital reports the discovery of a genetic variant that is associated with a patient's likelihood of responding to interferon-beta. Published in the Annals of Neurology on May 14, the study also presents evidence that the affected gene, SLC9A9, may have a broader role in regulating the development and activity of certain immune cells that play important roles in inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis.
Cytokine may play major role in multiple sclerosis
Apr 30, 2015
A study published online April 27th, in the Journal of Immunology, confirms that the cytokine GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) likely plays an important role in human disease and offers a new explanation for why the multiple sclerosis treatment interferon-Beta (INF-ß) is often effective at reducing multiple sclerosis attacks.
New anti-inflammatory molecule could halt multiple sclerosis progression
Mar 16, 2015
Scientists have developed a new drug-like molecule that can halt inflammation and has shown promise in preventing the progression of multiple sclerosis. The small drug-like molecule is called WEHI-345. It binds to and inhibits a key immune signaling protein called RIPK2, which prevents the release of inflammatory cytokines.
A real eye-opener: narcolepsy bears classic autoimmune hallmarks
Mar 09, 2015
A new study published in Pharmacological Research finds that narcolepsy bears the trademarks of a classic autoimmune disorder and should be treated accordingly. The research points to a particular autoimmune process as the trigger for the specific loss of orexin neurons, which maintain the delicate equilibrium between sleep and wakefulness in the brain
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