Multiple Sclerosis Center

Multiple sclerosis is a highly variable disorder that usually presents with recurrent, painless episodes of neurologic symptoms at 15 to 50 years of age.

Comprehensive Article

Multiple sclerosis
This comprehensive clinical reference includes information on many different areas of MS, including:

Key Articles

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis
Immunomodulatory agents in multiple sclerosis: clinical trials and therapy
Multiple sclerosis: biological differences in children and adults
Multiple sclerosis: neurobehavioral aspects
Multiple sclerosis: treatment of its symptoms
Natalizumab and PML in MS
Sleep and multiple sclerosis

Early Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

The following disorders may be early manifestations of multiple sclerosis or may never progress beyond their initial manifestations.
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
Balo concentric sclerosis
Clinically isolated syndrome
Optic neuritis
Transverse myelitis

Unusual Manifestations of Multiple Sclerosis

Pain, headache, and oromandibular structures
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis

Disorders Sometimes Confused with MS

The manifestations of multiple sclerosis are very variable. There are therefore many other disorders that can be misdiagnosed as multiple sclerosis. The greatest impostor is neuromyelitis optica.
Alexander disease
Childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination
Hemiplegic migraine
Hereditary spastic paraplegia
HTLV-1 associated myelopathy
Subcortical vascular cognitive impairment
The white matter lesions seen in this disorder may be cited in MRI reports as evidence for multiple sclerosis.
Susac syndrome

Treatment Information

Glatiramer acetate
Interferon beta 1a
Interferon beta 1b
Intrathecal baclofen

External Resources

AAN Guideline: Neutralizing Antibodies to Interferon-beta: Clinical and Radiographic Impact
AAN Guidelines: Multiple Sclerosis
EFNS Guidelines On the Use of Neuroimaging In the Management Of Multiple Sclerosis
FDA Advisory: Natalizumab - Update of Healthcare Professional Information
MS Society of Canada
MS Society of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Multiple Sclerosis Association of America
Multiple Sclerosis International Federation
National MS Society: Professional Resource Center
NICE Guideline: Management of Multiple Sclerosis in Primary and Secondary Care
Video: Multiple sclerosis - histopathology spinal cord
Video: Neuromyelitis optica
Video: Patient Guide to Managing MS


Multiple Sclerosis Community Forum
Support for patients with multiple sclerosis and related neurological disorders. Discussions among patients, families, caregivers and professionals on topics related to diagnosis, treatment, and activities of daily living.


Newly identified blood cells fight brain inflammation
Feb 17, 2014
Researchers have identified a new type of regulatory blood cells that can combat hyperactive T-cells in blood from patients with multiple sclerosis. By stimulating the regulatory blood cells, the researchers significantly decreased the level of brain inflammation and disease in a biological model. The results are published in the journal Nature Medicine.
Imaging technique shows brain anatomy change in women with multiple sclerosis, depression
Jan 31, 2014
A multicenter research team used a new, automated technique to identify shrinkage of a mood-regulating brain structure in a large sample of women with multiple sclerosis who also have a certain type of depression.
Boosting vitamin D could slow progression, reduce severity of multiple sclerosis
Jan 21, 2014
For patients in the early stages of multiple sclerosis, low levels of vitamin D were found to strongly predict disease severity and hasten its progression, according to a new study led by Harvard School of Public Health investigators in collaboration with Bayer HealthCare. The findings suggest that patients in the early stages of multiple sclerosis could stave off disease symptoms by increasing their vitamin D intake.
Preferable treatment for multiple sclerosis found in allogenic bone marrow stem cells
Dec 18, 2013
A research team in Brazil has found that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells isolated from multiple sclerosis patients have decreased suppressive function compared to those of healthy counterparts.
How ‘sunshine vitamin’ D may be helpful in fighting multiple sclerosis
Dec 10, 2013
In mice with a rodent form of multiple sclerosis, vitamin D appears to block damage-causing immune cells from migrating to the central nervous system, offering a potential explanation for why the so-called “sunshine vitamin” may prevent or ease symptoms of the neurodegenerative disease, according to results of a study at Johns Hopkins.
Molecular sensor detects early signs of multiple sclerosis
Dec 04, 2013
Scientists at the Gladstone Institutes have devised a new molecular sensor that can detect multiple sclerosis at its earliest stages—even before the onset of physical signs. In a new study the scientists reveaedl in animal models that the heightened activity of the protein thrombin in the brain could serve as an early indicator of multiple sclerosis.
New imaging research shows increased iron in the brain in earliest stages of multiple sclerosis
Oct 29, 2013
New imaging research from Western University (London, Canada) found iron deposits in deep gray matter, suggesting the accumulation occurs very early in the disease course. The researchers also found evidence casting further doubt on the controversial liberation therapy for multiple sclerosis. The research is in early publication online in Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders.
New strategy to treat multiple sclerosis shows promise in mice
Oct 10, 2013
Scientists have identified a set of compounds that may be used to treat multiple sclerosis in a new way. One of the newly identified compounds, a Parkinson disease drug called benztropine, was highly effective in treating a standard model of multiple sclerosis in mice, both alone and in combination with existing multiple sclerosis therapies.
All News