Topiramate is a monosaccharide derivative with a sulfamate functionality. It has multiple putative mechanisms of action. It was developed as an antiepileptic as McN-4853 and showed effectiveness against maximum electroshock in rats with a potency equal to that of phenytoin. Topiramate was commercialized and has been available in the United Kingdom since mid-1995. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved it in 1997.