In this clinical article, Dr. Harold Smith of the University of California, Irvine Center for Sleep Medicine, discusses suprascapular neuropathy, an under-recognized cause of shoulder girdle weakness and pain. The clinical and electrophysiologic techniques of diagnosis are easily learned. Both nonoperative and operative treatments are successful when properly chosen. Advances in correlation of nerve conduction study results with treatment choice and outcomes provide a motor-based prognostic model for suprascapular neuropathy. In this update, new data regarding diagnostic modalities, etiologies, and treatments of suprascapular neuropathy are summarized.