Stroke in young adults

Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
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By Bartlomiej Piechowski-Jozwiak MD, Jorge Moncayo-Gaete MD, and Julien Bogousslavsky MD

Ischemic stroke can be due to embolism from cardiac or arterial sources, from cervicocephalic arterial dissections, or from primary atherosclerotic lesions occluding large or small arteries. In situ thrombosis in a cerebral vessel can also develop as a result of a hypercoagulable state. Hemorrhagic strokes develop due to rupture of vascular abnormalities, such as aneurysms or vascular malformations. Significantly elevated blood pressure classically results in subcortical, brainstem, cerebellar, or lobar hemorrhages.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors