Spinal epidural abscess

Introduction
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By John E Greenlee MD

Spinal epidural abscess is also known as or subsumes Spinal pachymeningitis externa and Spinal peripachymeningitis. -ed.

Spinal epidural abscess is the result of loculated infection within the fat-filled space that separates the spinal dura and arachnoid. The condition is a neurologic and neurosurgical emergency that, if unrecognized, may cause devastating neurologic injury. Because of its infrequent occurrence, however, the possibility of epidural abscess tends to be ignored in patients presenting with fever and back or neck pain, and failure to recognize this condition also makes epidural abscess a significant cause of litigation for malpractice. In this clinical summary, Dr. John Greenlee, Professor and Executive Vice Chair of Neurology at the University of Utah School of Medicine, reviews the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this disorder.

Key points

  • Acute spinal epidural abscess characteristically presents with a consistent sequence of clinical symptoms and signs: severe focal pain, often unrelieved by narcotics, followed by radicular pain, followed by signs of spinal cord compression.
  • Chronic epidural abscesses may exhibit a similar sequence of symptoms and signs, but these may develop slowly over time. The most common presentation of chronic epidural abscess is that of a compressive lesion.
  • Treatment of spinal epidural abscess, in most cases, involves both antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Delay in diagnosis and treatment may result in death or profound, irreversible neurologic impairment.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors