Sleep terrors are also known as or subsume Night terrors. -ed.
Sleep terrors consist of abrupt arousals out of sleep stage 3 NREM, primarily in the first third of the night, with disordered motor agitation, screaming, fear, and autonomic activation. Sleep terrors affect between 1% to 6% of prepubertal children with a peak incidence between 5 and 7 years of age and a strong familial clustering. Sleep terrors are usually benign and tend spontaneously to decrease in frequency or cease during adolescence. In this clinical article, Dr. Federica Provini of the IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna at the University of Bologna addresses the latest clinical and polygraphic criteria for the differential diagnosis between sleep terrors and other motor phenomena occurring during sleep, focusing on nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, in which the differential diagnosis poses particular problems.