Post-polio syndrome

References cited
Article section 13 of 14.  Previous  Next

By Tarakad S Ramachandran MD and Arun Ramachandran

Abaza MM, Sataloff RT, Hawkshaw MJ, Mandel S. Laryngeal manifestations of postpoliomyelitis syndrome. J Voice 2001;15(2):291-4.

Acler M, Bocci T, Valenti D, Turri M, Priori A, Bertolasi L. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) for sleep disturbances and fatigue in patients with post-polio syndrome. Restor Neurol Neurosci 2013. [Epub ahead of print]

Agre JC, Grimby G, Rodriquez AA, Einarsson G, Swiggum ER, Franke TM. A comparison of symptoms between Swedish and American post-polio individuals and assessment of lower limb strength--a four-year cohort study. Scand J Rehabil Med 1995;27(3):183-92.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA. Neuromuscular function: comparison of symptomatic and asymptomatic polio subjects to control subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(8):545-51.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA. Intermittent isometric activity: its effect on muscle fatigue in postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991;72(12):971-5.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA. Muscular function in late polio and the role of exercise in post-polio patients. Neurorehabil 1997;8:107-18.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA, Franke TM. Strength, endurance, and work capacity after muscle strengthening exercise in postpolio subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78(7):681-6.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA, Franke TM. Subjective recovery time after exhausting muscular activity in postpolio and control subjects. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1998;77(2):140-14.

Agre JC, Rodriquez AA, Sperling KB. Symptoms and clinical impressions of patients seen in a postpolio clinic. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70(5):367-70.

Aguila-Maturana AM, Alegre-De Miquel C. Treatment on fatigue of patients with postpolio syndrome. A systematic review. [Article in Spanish] Rev Neurol 2010;50(10):595-602.

Allen GM, Gandevia AS, Middleton J. Quantitative assessments of elbow flexor muscle performance using twitch interpolation in post-polio patients: no evidence for deterioration. Brain 1997;120(Pt 4):663-72.

Alter M, Kurland LT, Molgaard CA. Late progressive muscular atrophy and antecedent poliomyelitis. Adv Neurol 1982;36:303-9.

Anderson AD, Levine SA, Gellert H. Loss of ambulatory ability in patients with old anterior poliomyelitis. Lancet 1972;2(7786):1061-3.

Ashizawa T, Butler IJ, Harati Y, Roongta SM. A dominantly inherited syndrome with continuous motor neuron discharges. Ann Neurol 1983;13(3):285-90.

Bach JR. Management of post-polio respiratory sequelae. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:96-102.

Bach JR, Alba AS. Pulmonary dysfunction and sleep disordered breathing as post-polio sequelae: evaluation and management. Orthopedics 1991;14(12):1329-37.

Bach JR, Alba AS, Bodofsky E, Curran FJ, Schulteiss M. Glossopharyngeal breathing and noninvasive aids in the management of post-polio respiratory insufficiency. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser 1987a;23(4):99-113.

Bach JR, Alba AS, Bohatiuk G, Saporitol L, Lee M. Mouth intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the management of postpolio respiratory insufficiency. Chest 1987b;91(6):859-64.

Barohn RJ, Sahenk Z, Warmolts JR Mendell JR. The Bruns-Garland syndrome (diabetic amyotrophy). Revisited 100 years later. Arch Neurol 1991;48(11):1130-5.

Beelen A, Nollet F, de Visser M, de Jong BA, Lankhorst GJ, Sargeant AJ. Quadriceps muscle strength and voluntary activation after polio. Muscle Nerve 2003;28:218-26.

Berlly MH, Strauser WW, Hall KM. Fatigue in postpolio syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1991;72(2):115-8.

Bertolasi L, Acler M, Dall'ora E, et al. Risk factors for post-polio syndrome among an Italian population: a case-control study. Neurol Sci 2012;33(6):1271-5.

Blomstrand A, Bake B. Post-polio lung function. Scand J Rehab Med 1992;24(1):43-9.

Bodian D. Poliomyelitis: pathologic anatomy. In: International Poliomyelitis Congress, editor. Poliomyelitis: papers and discussions presented at the First International Poliomyelitis Conference. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1949:62-84.

Bodian D, Howe HA. The pathology of early averted and nonparalytic poliomyelitis. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1941;69:135-47.

Borzakian S, Couderc T, Barbier Y, Attal G, Pelletier I, Colbere-Garapin F. Persistent poliovirus infection: establishment and maintenance involve distinct mechanisms. Virology 1992;186(2):398-408.

Bouchard C, Lacroix C, Plante V, et al. Clinicopathologic findings and prognosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Neurology 1999;52(3):498-503.

Brannagan III TH, Latov N. Motor neuropathy and monoclonal gammopathy. In: Younger DS, editor. Motor disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999.

Bruno RL. Post-polio sequelae: research and treatment in the second decade. Orthopedics 1991;14(11):1169-70.

Bruno RL, Frick NM. The psychology of polio as prelude to post-polio sequelae: behavior modification and psychotherapy. Orthopedics 1991;14(11):1185-93.

Bruno RL, Johnson JC, Berman WS. Motor and sensory functioning with changing ambient temperature in post-polio subjects: autonomic and electrophysiological correlates. In: Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, editors. Late effects of poliomyelitis. Miami: Symposia Foundation, 1985:95-108.

Buchholz DW, Jones B. Post-polio dysphagia: alarm or caution? Orthopedics 1991;14(12):1303-5.

Burger H, Marincek C. The influence of post-polio syndrome on independence and life satisfaction. Disabil Rehabil 2000;22(7):318-22.

Cannon S, Ritter FN. Vocal cord paralysis in postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Laryngoscope 1987;97(8 Pt 1):981-3.

Carriere. Amyotrophies Secondair. These de Montpelier, reviewed by Potts, 1903. See reference 133. 1875.

Cashman NR, Maselli R, Wollman RL, Roos R, Simon R, Antel JP. Late denervation in patients with antecedent paralytic poliomyelitis. N Engl J Med 1987a;317(1):7-12.

Cashman NR, Maselli R, Wollmann R, Simon R, Heidkamp P, Antel JP. New muscle atrophy as a late symptom of the post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Clin Ecol 1987b;5:11-3.

Cashman NR, Trojan DA. Correlation of electrophysiology with pathology, pathogenesis, and anticholinesterase therapy in post-polio syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 1995;753:138-50.

Centers for Disease Control: Poliomyelitis Surveillance Summary 1979. Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, April 1981.

Chan KM, Amirjani N, Sumrain M, Clarke A, Strohschein FJ. Randomized controlled trial of strength training in post-polio patients. Muscle Nerve 2003;27(3):332-8.

Chan KM, Strohschein FJ, Rydz D, Allidina A, Shuaib A, Westbury CF. Randomized controlled trial of modafinil for the treatment of fatigue in postpolio patients. Muscle Nerve 2006;33:138-41.

Codd MB, Mulder DW, Kurland LT, Beard CM, O’Fallon WM. Poliomyelitis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1935-1955: epidemiology and long-term sequelae. A preliminary report. In: Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, editors. Late effects of poliomyelitis. Miami: Symposia Foundation, 1985:121-34.

Coers C, Telerman-Toppet N, Durdu J. Neurogenic benign fasciculations, pseudomyotonia, and pseudotetany. A disease in search of a name. Arch Neurol 1981;38(5):282-7.

Colbere-Garapin F, Christodoulou C, Crainic R, Pelletier I. Persistent poliovirus infection of human neuroblastoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989;86(19):7590-4.

Conradi S, Ronnevi LO, Norris FH. Motor neuron disease and toxic metals. Adv Neurol 1982;36:201-31.

Cornil, Lepine. Sur un cas de paralysic generale spinale anterieure subaigue, suivi d’autopsie. Gaz Med (Paris) 1875;4:127.

Correa JC, Rocco CC, de Andrade DV, Peres JA, Correa FI. Electromyographic and neuromuscular analysis in patients with post-polio syndrome. Electromyograph Clin Neurophysiol 2008;48(8):329-33.

Dalakas MC. Morphologic changes in the muscles of patients with post-poliomyelitis neuromuscular symptoms. Neurology 1988;38(1):99-104.

Dalakas MC. Why drugs fail in post-polio syndrome: lessons from another clinical trial. Neurology 1999;53(6):1166-7.

Dalakas MC, Elder G, Hallett M, et al. A long-term follow-up study of patients with post-poliomyelitis neuromuscular symptoms. N Engl J Med 1986;314(15):959-63.

Dalakas MC, Illa I. Post-polio syndrome: concepts in clinical diagnosis, pathogenesis, and etiology. Adv Neurol 1991;56:495-511.

Dalakas MC, Sever JL, Madden KL, et al. Late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy: clinical, virologic, and immunologic studies. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6 Suppl 2:S562-7.

Dawson DM, Hallett M, Millender LH. Entrapment neuropathies 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1999.

Dean E, Ross J, Road JD, Courtenay L, Madill KJ. Pulmonary function in individuals with a history of poliomyelitis. Chest 1991;100(1):118-23.

De Grandis E, Mir P, Edwards MJ, Bhatia KP. Restless legs may be associated with the post-polio syndrome. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009;15(1):74-5.

Destombes J, Couderc T, Thiesson D, Girard S, Wilt SG, Blondel B. Persistent poliovirus infection in mouse motoneurons. J Virol 1997;71(2):1621-8.

Donofrio PD. AAEM case report #28: monomelic amyotrophy. Muscle Nerve 1994;17(10):1129-34.

Drachman DB, Murphy SR, Nigam MP, Hills JR. “Myopathic” changes in chronically denervated muscle. Arch Neurol 1967;16(1):14-24.

Ehni G. Effects of certain degenerative diseases of the spine, especially spondylosis and disk protrusion, on the neural contents, particularly in the lumbar region. Historical account. Mayo Clin Proc 1975;50(6):327-38.

Emeryk B, Rowinska-Marcinska K, Ryniewicz B, Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I. Disintegration of the motor unit in post-polio syndrome. Part II. Electrophysiological findings in patients with post-polio syndrome. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;30(8):451-8.

Endtz LJ, Fresay JJ. Studies on astereognosis and amyotrophy of the hand in brainstem syndromes. Relation to the symptomatology of tumours at the spinocranial junction. J Neurol Sci 1980;44(2-3):241-6.

Engel AG. Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic disorders. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Ernstoff B, Wetterqvist H, Kvist H, Grimby G. Endurance training effect on individuals with postpoliomyelitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77(9):843-8.

Farbu E, Gilhus NE, Barnes MP, et al. EFNS guideline on diagnosis and management of post-polio syndrome. Report of an EFNS task force. Eur J Neurol 2006;13(8):795-801.

Farbu E, Rekand T, Vik-Mo E, Lygren H, Gilhus NE, Aarli JA. Post-polio syndrome patients treated with intravenous immunoglobulin: a double-blinded randomized controlled pilot study. Eur J Neurol 2007;14(1):60-5.

Fordyce CB, Gagne D, Jalili F, et al. Elevated serum inflammatory markers in post-poliomyelitis syndrome. J Neurol Sci 2008;271(1-2):80-6.

Ginsberg AH, Gale MJ Jr, Rose LM, Clark EA. T-cell alterations in late poliomyelitis. Arch Neurol 1989;46(5):497-501.

Goebel A. Immunoglobulin responsive chronic pain. J Clin Immunol 2010;30 Suppl 1:S103-8.

Gonzalez H, Khademi M, Andersson M, Wallstrom E, Borg K, Olsson T. Prior poliomyelitis-evidence of cytokine production in the central nervous system. J Neurol Sci 2002;205(1):9-13.

Gonzalez H, Khademi M, Andersson M, Wallstrom E, Borg K, Olsson T. Prior poliomyelitis IVIg treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokine production. J Neuroimmunology 2004;150:139-44.

Gonzalez H, Khademi M, Borg K, Olsson T. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: sustained effects on quality of life variables and cytokine expression after one year follow up. J Neuroinflammation 2012;9:167.

Gonzalez H, Ottervald J, Nilsson KC, et al. Identification of novel candidate protein biomarkers for the post-polio syndrome: implications for diagnosis, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. J Proteomics 2009;71(6):670-81.

Gordon T, Hegedus J, Tam SL. Adaptive and maladaptive motor axonal sprouting in aging and motoneuron disease. Neurol Res 2004;26:174-85.

Grimby L, Tollback A, Muller U, Larsson L. Fatigue of chronically overused motor units in prior polio patients. Muscle Nerve 1996;19:728-37.

Guilleminault C, Motta J. Sleep apnea syndrome as a long-term sequela of poliomyelitis. In: Guilleminault C, editor. Sleep apnea syndromes. New York: Alan R Liss, 1978:309-15.

Hachisuka A, Komori T, Abe T, Hachisuka K. Repeater F-waves are signs of motor unit pathology in polio survivors. Muscle Nerve 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

Hall S, Bartleson JD, Onofrio BM, Baker HL, Okazaki H, O’Duffy JD. Lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical features, diagnostic procedures, and results of surgical treatment in 68 patients. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:271.

Halstead LS. A brief history of postpolio syndrome in the United States. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011. [Epub ahead of print]

Halstead LS, Rossi D. Post-polio syndrome: clinical experience with 132 consecutive outpatients. Birth Defects 1987;23:13-26.

Halstead LS, Wiechers DO. Late effects of poliomyelitis. Miami: Symposia Foundation, 1985.

Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, Rossi CD. Late effects of poliomyelitis: a national survey. In: Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, editors. Late effects of poliomyelitis. Miami: Symposia Foundation, 1985:11-31.

Harding AE, Thomas PK. Hereditary distal spinal muscular atrophy. A report on 34 cases and a review of the literature. J Neurol Sci 1980;45:337-48.

Hayward M, Seaton D. Late sequelae of paralytic poliomyelitis: a clinical and electromyographic study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1979;42:117-22.

Howard RS, Wiles CM, Spencer GT. The late sequelae of poliomyelitis. Q J Med 1988;66(251):219-32.

Hsu AA, Staats BA. “Postpolio sequelae” and sleep-related disordered breathing. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73(3):216-24.

Hudson AJ, Brown WF, Gilbert JJ. The muscular pain-fasciculation syndrome. Neurology 1978;28:1105-9.

Ivanyi B, Nelemans PJ, de Jonghe R, Ongerboer de Visser BW, DeVissser M. Muscle strength in post-polio patients: a prospective follow-up study. Muscle Nerve 1996;19:738-42.

Ivanyi B, Nollet F, Redekop WK, et al. Late onset polio sequelae: Disabilities and handicaps in a population-based cohort of the 1956 poliomyelitis outbreak in The Netherlands. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1999;80:687-90.

Johnson WG. Hexosaminidase deficiency: a cause of recessively inherited motor neuron diseases. Adv Neurol 1982;36:159-63.

Jubelt B, Agre JC. Characteristics and management of postpolio syndrome. JAMA 2000;284(4):412-4.

Jubelt B, Cashman NR. Neurological manifestations of the post-polio syndrome. Crit Rev Neurobiol 1987;3:199-220.

Jubelt B, Drucker J. Post-polio syndrome: an update. Semin Neurol 1993;13(3):283-90.

Jubelt B, Drucker J. Poliomyelitis and the post-polio syndrome. In: Younger DS, editor. Motor disorders. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1999:381-95.

Jubelt B, Salazar-Grueso EF, Roos RP, Cashman NR. Antibody titer to poliovirus in blood and cerebrospinal of patients with post-polio syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:201-7.

Julien J, Leparc-Goffart I, Lina B, et al. Postpolio syndrome: poliovirus persistence is involved in the pathogenesis. J Neurol 1999;246(6):472-6.

Kaminski JH, Tresser N, Hogan RE, Martin E. Pathological analysis of spinal cords from survivors of poliomyelitis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:390-3.

Kemp BJ, Krause JS. Depression and life satisfaction among people ageing with post-polio and spinal cord injury. Disabil Rehabil 1999;21:241-9.

Kidd D, Howard RS, Williams AJ, Heatley FW, Panayiotopoulos CP, Spencer GT. Late functional deterioration following paralytic poliomyelitis. Q J Med 1997;90:189-96.

Klein MG, Whyte J, Keenan MA, Esquenazi A, Polansky M. The relation between lower extremity strength and shoulder overuse symptoms: A model based on polio survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000a;81:789-95.

Klein MG, Whyte J, Keenan MA, Esquenazi A, Polansky M. Changes in strength over time among polio survivors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000b;81:1059-64.

Klingman J, Chui H, Corgiat M, Perry J. Functional recovery; a major risk factor for the development of postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy. Arch Neurol 1988;45:645-7.

Kohl SJ. Emotional response of patients with late effects of poliomyelitis. Birth Defects 1987;23:135-42.

Kriz JL, Jones DR, Speier JL, Canine JK, Owen RR, Serfass RC. Cardiorespiratory responses to upper extremity aerobic training by post-polio subject. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:49-54.

Kumakura N, Takayanagi M, Hasegawa T, Ihara K, Yano H, Kimizuka M. Self-assessed secondary difficulties among paralytic poliomyelitis and spinal cord injury survivors in Japan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1245-51.

Kurent JE, Brooks BR, Madden DL, Sever JL, Engel WK. CSF viral antibodies. Evaluation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and late-onset postpoliomyelitis progressive muscular atrophy. Arch Neurol 1979;36:269-73.

Latov N. Plasma cell dyscrasia and motor neuron disease. Adv Neurol 1982;36:273-8.

Leis AA, Stokic DS, Webb RM, Slavinski SA, Fratkin J. Clinical spectrum of muscle weakness in human West Nile virus infection. Muscle Nerve 2003;28:302-8.

Leon-Monzon ME, Dalakas MC. Detection of poliovirus antibodies and poliovirus genome in patients with the post-polio syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:208-18.

Leparc-Goffart I, Julien J, Fuchs F, et al. Evidence of presence of poliovirus genomic sequences in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with postpolio syndrome. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:2023-6.

Lin MC, Liaw MY, Chen WJ, Cheng PT, Wong AM, Chiou WK. Pulmonary function and spinal characteristics: Their relationships in persons with idiopathic and postpoliomyelitis scoliosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:335-41.

Marin LF, Carvalho LB, Prado LB, Quadros AA, Oliveira AS, Prado GF. Restless legs syndrome in post-polio syndrome: a series of 10 patients with demographic, clinical and laboratorial findings. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2011;17(7):563-4.

Maselli RA, Cashman NR, Wollman RL, Salazar-Grueso EF, Roos R. Neuromuscular transmission as a function of motor unit size in patients with prior poliomyelitis. Muscle Nerve 1992;15:648-55.

McNeal DR, Somerville NJ, Wilson DJ. Work problems and accommodations reported by persons who are postpolio or have a spinal cord injury. Asst Technol 1999;11:137-57.

Melchers W, de Visser M, Jongen P, et al. The postpolio syndrome: no evidence for poliovirus persistence. Ann Neurol 1992;32:728-32.

Miller DC. Post-polio syndrome spinal cord pathology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:185-93.

Mohammad AF, Khan KA, Galvin L, Hardiman O, O'Connell PG. High incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in an aging post-polio population. Eur Neurol 2009;62(6):369-74.

Muir P, Nicholson F, Spencer GT, et al. Enterovirus infection of the central nervous system of humans: lack of association with chronic neurological disease. J Gen Virol 1996;77:1469-76.

Mulder DW, Rosenbaum RA, Layton DD. Late progression of poliomyelitis or forme fruste amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Mayo Clin Proc 1972;47:756-61.

Munsat TL. Post-polio syndrome. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann, 1991.

Nelson KR. Creatine kinase and fibrillation potentials in patients with late sequelae of polio. Muscle Nerve 1990;13:722-5.

Norris FH Jr. Adult progressive muscular atrophy and hereditary spinal muscular atrophy. Handb Clin Neurol 1991;59:13-34.

Norris FH, Denys EH, U KS. Differential diagnosis of adult motor neuron disease. In: Mulder DW, editor. The diagnosis and symptomatic therapy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980:53-78.

On AY, Oncu J, Uludag B, Ertekin C. Effects of lamotrigine on the symptoms and life qualities of patients with post polio syndrome: a randomized, controlled study. Neurorehabilitation 2005;20:245-51.

Onel D, Sari H, Donmez C. Lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical/radiologic therapeutic evaluation in 145 patients: conservative treatment or surgical intervention? Spine 1993;18:291-8.

Ostlund G, Broman L, Werhagen L, Borg K. IVIG treatment in post-polio patients: evaluation of responders. J Neurol 2012;259(12):2571-8.

Ostlund G, Wahlin Å, Sunnerhagen KS, Borg K. Post polio syndrome: fatigued patients a specific subgroup? J Rehabil Med 2011;43(1):39-45

Packer TL, Martins I, Krefting L, Brouwer B. Post-polio sequelae: activity and post-polio fatigue. Orthopedics 1991;14:1223-6.

Patten BM, Engel WK. Phosphate and parathyroid disorders associated with the syndrome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Adv Neurol 1982;36:181-200.

Paul JR. A history of poliomyelitis. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971.

Pavio N, Buc-Caron NH, Colbere-Garapin F. Persistent poliovirus infection of human fetal brain cells. J Virol 1996;70:6395-401.

Peach P, Olejnik S. Effect of treatment and noncompliance on post-polio sequelae. Orthopedics 1991;14:1199-203.

Peach PE. Overwork weakness with evidence of muscle damage in a patient with residual paralysis from polio. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1990;71(3):248-50.

Pezeshkpour GH, Dalakas MC. Long-term changes in the spinal cords of patients with old poliomyelitis: signs of continuous disease activity. Arch Neurol 1988;45:505-8.

Plum F, Swanson AG. Central neurogenic hyperventilation in man. Arch Neurol Psych 1959;81:531-49.

Prins JH, Hartung H, Merritt DJ, Blancq RJ, Goebert DA. Effect of aquatic exercise training in persons with poliomyelitis disability. Sports Med Training Rehabil 1994;5:29-39.

Qureshi A. Diaphragm paralysis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2009;30(3):315-20.

Ramlow J, Alexander M, LaPorte R, Kaufmann C, Kuller L. Epidemiology of the post-polio syndrome. Am Epidemiol 1992;136:769-86.

Raymond (with contributions by essentiele de Charcot JM). Paralysie l’enfance. Atrophic musculaire consecutive. Gaz Med (Paris) 1875;4:225.

Rowland LP. Diverse forms of motor neuron disease. Adv Neurol 1982;36:1-11.

Rowland LP, Shneider NA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1688-1700.

Ryniewicz G, Rowinska-Marcinska K, Emeryk B, Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I. Disintegration of the motor unit in post-polio syndrome. Part I. Electrophysiological findings in patients after poliomyelitis. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 1990;30:423-7.

Sabin AB, Ward R. Nature of non-paralytic and transitory paralytic poliomyelitis in Rhesus monkeys inoculated with human virus. J Exp Med 1941;73:757-70.

Salazar-Grueso EF, Grimaldi LM, Roos RP, Variakojis R, Jubelt B, Cashman NR. Isoelectric focusing studies of serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with antecedent poliomyelitis. Ann Neurol 1989;26:709-13.

Schutta HS. Spinal tumors. In: Joynt RT, Griggs RC, editors. Clinical neurology. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1994.

Shapiro S. Cauda equina syndrome secondary to lumbar disc herniation. Neurosurgery 1993;332:743-7.

Sharief MK, Hentages R, Ciaidi M. Intrathecal immune response in patients with the post-polio syndrome. N Engl J Med 1991;325(11):749-55.

Sharma KR, Braun-Kent J, Mynhier MA, Weiner MW, Miller RG. Excessive muscular fatigue in the postpoliomyelitis syndrome. Neurology 1994;44:642-6.

Siegel H, McCutchen C, Dalakas M, et al. Physiologic events initiating REM sleep in patients with the postpolio syndrome. Neurology 1999;52:516-22.

Silbergleit AK, Waring WP, Sullivan MJ, Maynard FM. Evaluation, treatment, and follow-up results of post-polio patients with dysphagia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1991;104:333-8.

Smith E, Rosenblatt P, Limauro A. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in acute poliomyelitis. J Pediatr 1949;34:1-11.

Söderholm S, Lehtinen A, Valtonen K, Ylinen A. Dysphagia and dysphonia among persons with post-polio syndrome - a challenge in neurorehabilitation. Acta Neurol Scand 2010;122(5):343-9.

Soliman MG, Higgins SE, El-Kabir DR, Davidson AC, Williams AJ, Howard RS. Non-invasive assessment of respiratory muscle strength in patients with previous poliomyelitis. Respir Med 2005;99:1217-22.

Sonies BC, Dalakas MC. Progression of oral-motor and swallowing symptoms in the post-polio syndrome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;753:87-95.

Sorenson EJ, Daube JR, Windebank AJ. A 15-year follow-up of neuromuscular function in patients with prior poliomyelitis. Neurology 2005;64:1070-2.

Speir JL, Owen RR, Knapp M, Canine JK. Occurrence of post-polio sequelae in an epidemic population. In: Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, editors. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis. White Plains, NY: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1987:39-48.

Stalberg E, Grimby G. Dynamic electromyography and muscle biopsy changes in a 4-year follow-up: study of patients with a history of polio. Muscle Nerve 1995;18(7):699-707.

Stark RJ, Kennard C, Swash M. Hand wasting in spondylotic high cord compression: an electromyographic study. Ann Neurol 1981;9:58-62.

Steljes DG, Kryger MH, Kirk BW, Millar TW. Sleep in postpolio syndrome. Chest 1990;98:113-40.

Sunnerhagen KS, Carlsson U, Sandberg A, Stalberg E, Hedberg M, Grimby G. Electrophysiologic evaluation of muscle fatigue development and recovery in late polio. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:770-6.

Thomas CK, Zijdewind I. Fatigue of muscles weakened by death of motoneurons. Muscle Nerve 2006;33:21-41.

Trojan DA, Cashman NR, Shapiro S, Tansey CM, Esdaile JM. Predictive factors for post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994;75:770-7.

Trojan DA, Collet JP, Shapiro S, et al. A multicenter, randomized, double-blinded trial of pyridostigmine in postpolio syndrome. Neurology 1999;53:1225-33.

Van den Berg-Vos RM, Franssen H, Wokke JH, Van es HW, Van den Berg LH. Multifocal motor neuropathy: diagnostic criteria that predict the response to immunoglobulin treatment. Ann Neurol 2000;48:919-26.

Vasconcelos OM, Prokhorenko OA, Salajegheh MK, et al. Modafinil for treatment of fatigue in post-polio syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2007;68(20):1680-6.

Vasiliadis HM, Collet JP, Shapiro S, Venturini A, Trojan DA. Predictive factors and correlates for pain in postpoliomyelitis syndrome patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1109-15.

Waring WP, Maynard F, Grady W, Grady R, Boyles C. Influence of appropriate lower extremity orthotic management on ambulation, pain and fatigue in a post-polio population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70:371-5.

Waring WP, McLaurin TM. Correlation of creatine kinase and gait measurement in the postpolio population. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:37-9.

Wekre LL, Stanghelle JK, Lobben B, Oyhaugen S. The Norwegian polio study 1994: A nation-wide survey of problems in long-standing poliomyelitis. Spinal Cord 1998;36:280-4.

Werner R, Waring W, Davidoff G. Risk factors for median mononeuropathy of the wrist in postpoliomyelitis patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989;70:464-7.

Wiechers DO. Late effects of poliomyelitis: case reports. In: Halstead LS, Wiechers DO, editors. Late effects of poliomyelitis. Miami: Symposia Foundation, 1985:3-9.

Wiechers DO. New concepts of the reinnervated motor unit revealed by vaccine-associated poliomyelitis. Muscle Nerve 1988;11:356-64.

Wiechers DO, Hubbell SL. Late changes in the motor unit after acute poliomyelitis. Muscle Nerve 1981;4:524-8.

Willen C. Physical performance and the effects of dynamic exercise in water in individuals with late polio [thesis dissertation]. Goteborg, Sweden: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute for Community Medicine, Goteborg University, 1999.

Willen C, Grimby G. Pain, physical activity, and disability in individuals with late effects of polio. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998;79:915-9.

Willen C, Thoren-Jonsson AL, Grimby G, Sunnerhagen KS. Disability in a 4-year follow-up study of people with post-polio syndrome. J Rehabil Med 2007;39(2):175-80.

Winberg C, Flansbjer UB, Carlsson G, Rimmer J, Lexell J. Physical activity in persons with late effects of polio: a descriptive study. Disabil Health J 2014a;7(3):302-8.

Winberg C, Flansbjer UB, Rimmer JH, Lexell J. Relationship between physical activity, knee muscle strength, and gait performance in persons with late effects of polio. PM R 2014b. [Epub ahead of print]

Windebank AJ, Litchy WJ, Daube JR, Iverson RA. Lack of progression of neurologic deficit in survivors of paralytic polio: a 50 year prospective population-based study. Neurology 1996;46:80-4.

Windebank AJ, Litchy WJ, Daube JR, Kurland LT, Codd MB, Iverson R. Late effects of paralytic poliomyelitis in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology 1991;41:501-7.

Wise HH. Effective intervention strategies for management of impaired posture and fatigue with post-polio syndrome: a case report. Physiother Theory Pract 2006;22(5):279-87.

**References especially recommended by the author or editor for general reading.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors