Optic neuritis

References cited
Article section 14 of 16.  Previous  Next

Allbutt TC. On the ophthalmoscopic signs of spinal disease. Lancet 1870;1:76-8.

Alvarez G, Cardenas M. Multiple sclerosis following optic neuritis in Chile. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:115-7.

Anmarkrud N, Slettnes ON. Uncomplicated retrobulbar neuritis and the development of multiple sclerosis. Acta Ophthalmol Copenh 1989;67:306-9.

Arezzo JC, Brosnan CF, Schroeder CE, Litwak MS, Bornstein MB. Electrophysiological analysis of factors involved in the primary demyelinating diseases: the rabbit eye model system. Brain Res 1988;462:286-300.

Atabay C, Erdem E, Kansu T, Eldem B. Eales’ disease with internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Ann Ophthalmol 1992;24:267-70.

Audoin B, Fernando KT, Swanton JK, Thompson AJ, Plant GT, Miller DH. Selective magnetization transfer ratio decrease in the visual cortex following optic neuritis. Brain 2006;129:1031-39.

Bamford CR, Ganley JP, Sibley WA, Laguna JF. Uveitis, perivenous sheathing and multiple sclerosis. Neurology 1978;28:119-24.**

Beck RW, Arrington J, Murtagh FR, Cleary PA, Kaufman DI. Brain magnetic resonance imaging in acute optic neuritis. Experience of the Optic Neuritis Study Group. Arch Neurol 1993a;50:841-6.

Beck RW, Cleary PA. Optic neuritis treatment trial. One-year follow-up results. Arch Ophthalmol 1993b;111:773-5.**

Beck RW, Cleary PA, Anderson MJ, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of corticosteroids in the treatment of acute optic neuritis. The Optic Neuritis Study Group. N Engl J Med 1992;326:581-8.

Beck RW, Cleary PA, Trobe JD, et al. The effect of corticosteroids for acute optic neuritis on the subsequent development of multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 1993c;329:1764-810.

Beck RW, Gal RL. Treatment of acute optic neuritis: a summary of findings from the optic neuritis treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol 2008;126(7):994-5.

Beck RW, Kupersmith MJ, Cleary PA, et al. Fellow eye abnormalities in acute unilateral optic neuritis. Ophthalmology 1993d;100:691-8.

Beck RW, the Optic Neuritis Study Group. The 5-year risk of MS after optic neuritis. Experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Neurology 1997;49:1404-13.

Beck RW, the Optic Neuritis Study Group. Visual function more than 10 years after optic neuritis: Experience of the Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2004;137:77-83.**

Bettelli E, Pagany M, Weiner HL, Linington C, Sobel RA, Kuchroo VK. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cell receptor transgenic mice develop spontaneous autoimmune optic neuritis. J Exp Med 2003;197:1073-81.

Beyer NH, Milthers J, Lauridsen AM, Houen G, Frederiksen JL. Autoantibodies to the proteasome in monosymptomatic optic neuritis may predict progression to multiple sclerosis. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2007;67:696-706.

Biousse V, Calvetti O, Drews-Botsch CD, et al. Management of optic neuritis and impact of clinical trials: an international survey. J Neurol Sci 2009;276(1-2):69-74.

Birnbaum G, Cree B, Altafullah I, Zinser M, Reder AT. Combining beta interferon and atorvastatin may increase disease activity in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2008;71(18):1390-5.**

Bonhomme GR, Waldman AT, Balcer LJ, et al. Pediatric optic neuritis: brain MRI abnormalities and risk of multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2009;72(10):881-5.

Bosley TM, Constantinescu CS, Tench CR, Abu-Amero KK. Mitochondrial changes in leukocytes of patients with optic neuritis. Mol Vis 2007;13:1516-28.

Boutin B, Esquivel E, Mayer M, Chaumet S, Ponsot G, Arthuis M. Multiple sclerosis in children: report of clinical and paraclinical features of 19 cases. Neuropediatrics 1988;19:118-23.

Bradley WG, Whitty CW. Acute optic neuritis: its clinical features and their relations to prognosis for recovery of vision. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1967;30:531-8.**

Bradley WG, Whitty CW. Acute optic neuritis: prognosis for development of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1968;31:10-8.**

Brazis PW, Stewart M, Lee AG. The uveo-meningeal syndromes. Neurologist 2004;10:171-84.

Brusa A, Jones SJ. Long-term remyelination after optic neuritis: a 2-year visual evoked potential and psychophysical serial study. Brain 2001;124:468-79.

Cakmakli G, Kurne A, Guven A, et al. Childhood optic neuritis: the pediatric neurologist's perspective. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2009;13(5):452-7.

Celesia GG, Kaufman DI, Brigell M, et al. Optic neuritis: a prospective study. Neurology 1990;40:919-23.

Cendrowski W. The risk of multiple sclerosis development in patients with idiopathic optic neuritis: prognosis and other problems. Neurol Neurochir Pol 1991;25:87-93.

Chan JW. Optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis. Optic Neuritis 2002;10:161-86.

Chen YM, Yang CC, Wang IH, Hu FR, Jou JR. The effect of interferon beta-1a on optic neuritis relapse in patients with multiple sclerosis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2010;248(2):231-5.

Ciccarelli O, Toosy AT, Hickman SJ, et al. Optic radiation changes after optic neuritis detected by tractography-based group mapping. Hum Brain Mapp 2005;25:308-16.

Cole SR, Beck RW, Moke PS, Kaufman DI, Tourtellotte WW. The predictive value of CSF oligoclonal banding for MS 5 years after optic neuritis. Neurology 1998;51:885-7.

Corona-Vazquez T, Ruiz-Sandoval J, Arriada-Mendicoa N. Optic neuritis progressing to multiple sclerosis. Acta Neurol Scand 1997;95:85-9.

Dalton CM, Brex PA, Miszkiel KA, et al. Spinal cord MRI in clinically isolated optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1577-80.

Davis FA, Bergen D, Schauf C, McDonald I, Deutsch W. Movement phosphenes in optic neuritis: a new clinical sign. Neurology 1976;26:1100-4.**

DeBroff BM, Donahue SP. Bilateral optic neuropathy as the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1993;116:108-11.

Deckert SM, Schluter D, Schwendemann G. Evaluation of IL-2, sIL2R, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-1 beta levels in serum and CSF of patients with optic neuritis. J Neurol Sci 1992;113:50-4.

DeJong RN. Multiple sclerosis. History, definition and general considerations. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology. Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. New York: Elsevier, 1970:45-62.**

de la Cruz J, Kupersmith MJ. Clinical profile of simultaneous bilateral optic neuritis in adults. Br J Ophthalmol 2006;90:551-4.

Delalande S, de Seze J, Fauchais A, et al. Neurologic manifestations in primary Sjogren syndrome: a study of 82 patients. Medicine 2004;83:280-90.

Derakhshandi H, Etemadifar M, Feizi A, Abtahi SH, et al. Preventive effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on conversion of optic neuritis to clinically definite multiple sclerosis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial. Acta Neuro Belg 2012. [Epub ahead of print.]**

Deschamps R, Gout O, Fontaine B, et al. Acute optic neuritis: clinical and MRI prognostic factors. Study of fifty patients. Rev Neurol 2002;145:446-52.

Dhawan N, Cheng H, Reder AT. Statins block interferon signaling in human immune cells: Potential loss of the therapeutic effect of IFN-beta in multiple sclerosis. Neurology 2007;68:S59.005, A364.

Drosos AA, Petris CA, Petroutsos GM, Moutsopoulos HM. Unusual eye manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Clin Rheumatol 1989;8:49-53.

Dutton JJ, Burde RM, Klingele TG. Autoimmune retrobulbar optic neuritis. Am J Ophthalmol 1982;94:11-7.

Ebers GC. Optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1985;42:702-4.

Elbol P, Work K. Retinal nerve fiber layer in multiple sclerosis. Acta Ophthalmol Copenh 1990;68:481-6.

Engell T, Sellbjerg F, Jensen C. Changes in the retinal veins in acute optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 1999;100:81-83.

Ernst BB, Lowder CY, Meisler DM, Gutman FA. Posterior segment manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Ophthalmol 1991;98:1272-80.

Farris BK, Pickard DJ. Bilateral postinfectious optic neuritis and intravenous steroid therapy in children. Ophthalmology 1990;97:339-45.

Fazzone HE, Lefton DR, Kupersmith MJ. Optic neuritis: correlation of pain and magnetic resonance imaging. Ophthalmology 2003;110(8):1646-9.

Feinstein A, Youl B, Ron M. Acute optic neuritis. A cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging study. Brain 1992;115:1403-15.

Feng X, Han D, Kilaru B, Niewold TB, Reder AT. Inhibitory effect of high-dose atorvastatin on interferon-beta signaling in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler 2009;15:P290, S78.

Fenichel GM. Neurological complications of immunization. Ann Neurol 1982;12:119-28.

Fleishman JA, Beck RW, Linares OA, Klein JW. Deficits in visual function after resolution of optic neuritis. Ophthalmology 1987;94:1029-35.

Foroozan R, Buono LM, Savino PJ, et al. Acute demyelinating optic neuritis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2002;13:375-80.

Francis DA, Compston DA, Batchelor JR, McDonald WI. A reassessment of the risk of multiple sclerosis developing in patients with optic neuritis after extended follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987;50:758-65.

Fraser C, Klistorner A, Graham S, Garrick R, Billson F, Grigg J. Multifocal visual evoked potential latency analysis: predicting progression to multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 2006;63:847-50.

Fraser CL, Davagnanam I, Radon M, Plant GT. The time course and phenotype of Uhthoff phenomenon following optic neuritis. Mult Scler 2012;18(7):1042-4.

Frederiksen JL, Larsson HB, Henriksen O, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 1989;80:512-7.

Frederiksen JL, Larsson HB, Olesen J. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging and CSF findings in patients with acute monosymptomatic optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 1992;86:317-22.

Frederiksen JL, Larsson HB, Ottovay E, Stigsby B, Olesen J. Acute optic neuritis with normal visual acuity. Comparison of symptoms and signs with psychophysiological, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging data. Acta Ophthalmol Copenh 1991;69:357-66.

Frederiksen JL, Madsen HO, Ryder LP, Larsson HB, Morling N, Svejgaard A. HLA typing in acute optic neuritis: relation to multiple sclerosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Arch Neurol 1996;54:76-80.

Frick E. Optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity by peripheral blood lymphocytes against basic protein of myelin, encephalitogenic peptide, cerebrosides and gangliosides. Eur Neurol 1988;28:120-5.

Frisen L, Hoyt WF. Insidious atrophy of retinal nerve fibers in multiple sclerosis. Funduscopic identification in patients with and without visual complaints. Arch Ophthalmol 1974;92:91-7.**

Gass A, Moseley IF. The contribution of magnetic resonance imaging in the differential diagnosis of optic nerve damage. J Neurol Sci 2000;172:S17-22.

Gerling J, Meyer JH, Kommerell G. Visual field defects in optic neuritis and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: distinctive features. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1998;236:188-92.

Ghezzi A, Martinelli V, Rodegher M, Zaffaroni M, Comi G. The prognosis of idiopathic optic neuritis. Neurol Sci 2000;21(4, Suppl 2):S865-S869.

Ghezzi A, Torri V, Zaffaroni M. Isolated optic neuritis and its prognosis for multiple sclerosis: a clinical and paraclinical study with evoked potentials. CSF examination and brain MRI. Ital J Neurol Sci 1996;17:325-32.

Glaser JS. Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990.**

Good WV, Muci MR, Berg BO, Frederick DR, Hoyt CS. Optic neuritis in children with poor recovery of vision. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1992;20:319-23.

Gronning M, Mellgren SI, Schive K. Optic neuritis in the two northernmost counties of Norway. A study of incidence and the prospect of later development of multiple sclerosis Arctic Med Res 1989;48:117-21. Erratum appears in Arctic Med Res 1990;49(1):60.

Gross JM, Schatz H, McDonald HR, Johnson RN. Kearns-Sayre syndrome: a case report and review. Eur J Ophthalmol 1992;2:15-20.

Gungor L, Gungor I, Ozturk HE, Onar MK. Visual evoked potentials in guillain-barre syndrome. J Clin Neurol 2011;7(1):34-9.

Guy J, Ellis EA, Hope GM, Rao NA. Antioxidant enzymes reduce loss of blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental optic neuritis. Arch Ophthalmol 1989;107:1359-63.

Harding AE, Sweeney MG, Miller DH, et al. Occurrence of a multiple sclerosis-like illness in women who have a Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mitochondrial DNA mutation. Brain 1992;115:979-89.

Haufschild T, Kaiser HJ, Preisig T, et al. Influence of red wine on visual function and endothelin-1 plasma level in a patient with optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 2003;53(6):825-6.

Heinrichs IH, McLean DR. Evolution of visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis. Can J Neurol Sci 1988;15:394-6.

Hely MA, McManis PG, Doran TJ, Walsh JC, McLeod JG. Acute optic neuritis: a prospective study of risk factors for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49:1125-30.

Henderson AP, Altmann DR, Trip SA, et al. Early factors associated with axonal loss after optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 2011;70(6):955-63.

Herishanu YO, Badarna S, Sarov B, Abarbanel JM, Segal S, Bearman JE. A possible harmful late effect of methylprednisolone therapy on a time cluster of optic neuritis. Acta Neurol Scand 1989;80:569-74.

Hickman SJ, Dalton CM, Miller DH, et al. Management of acute optic neuritis. Lancet 2002;360:1953-62.

Hickman SJ, Kapoor R, Jones SJ, Altmann DR, Plant GT, Miller DH. Corticosteroids do not prevent optic nerve atrophy following optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74(8):1139-41.

Hickman SJ, Miszkiel KA, Plant GT, Miller DH. The optic nerve sheath on MRI in acute optic neuritis. Neuroradiology 2005;47:51-55.

Hickman SJ, Toosy AT, Miszkiel KA, et al. Visual recovery following acute optic neuritis: a clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol 2004;251:996-1005.

Hintzen RQ, van den Born LI. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy and multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77(12):1373-5.

Hornabrook RS, Miller DH, Newton MR, et al. Frequent involvement of the optic radiation in patients with acute isolated optic neuritis. Neurology 1992;42:77-9.

Horton JC. Mistaken treatment of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with interferon beta-1a. Ann Neurol 2002;52:129.**

Hutchinson WM. Acute optic neuritis and the prognosis for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976;39:283-9.

Hwang JM, Lee YJ, Kim MK. Optic neuritis in Asian children. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2002;39:26-32.

Jacobs L, Kinkel PR, Kinkel WR. Silent brain lesions in patients with isolated idiopathic optic neuritis. A clinical and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Neurol 1986;43:452-5.

Jacobs LD, Beck RW, Simon JH. Intramuscular interferon beta-1a therapy initiated during a first demyelinating event in multiple sclerosis. N Engl J Med 2000;343:898-904.**

Jacobs LD, Kaba SE, Miller CM, Priore RL, Brownscheidle CM. Correlation of clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid findings in optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 1997;41:392-8.

Jacobson DM. Lyme disease and optic neuritis: long-term follow-up of seropositive patients. Neurology 2003;60(5):881-2.

Jacobson DM, Marx JJ, Dlesk A. Frequency and clinical significance of Lyme seropositivity in patients with isolated optic neuritis. Neurology 1991;41:706-11.

Javed A, Balabanov R, Arnason BG, et al. Minor salivary gland inflammation in Devic's disease and longitudinally extensive myelitis. Mult Scler 2008;14(6):809-14.**

Jenkins T, Ciccarelli O, Toosy A, et al. Dissecting structure-function interactions in acute optic neuritis to investigate neuroplasticity. Hum Brain Mapp 2010;31(2):276-86.

Jin YP, de Pedro-Cuesta J, Huang Y, Soderstrom M. Predicting multiple sclerosis at optic neuritis onset. Mult Scler 2003;9:135-41.

Jin YP, de Pedro-Cuesta J, Soderstrom M, Link H. Time and space patterns. Arch Neurol 1999;56:975-80.

Johnson MA, Cadavid D. Simvastatin in acute optic neuritis. Mult Scler 2012;18(11):1657.**

Kansu T, Kirkali P, Kansu E, Zileli T. Optic neuropathy in Behcet's disease. J Clin Neuroophthalmol 1989;9:277-80.

Katz B. The dyschromatopsia of optic neuritis: a descriptive analysis of data from the optic neuritis treatment trial. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1995;93:685-708.

Kaur P, Bennett JL. Optic neuritis and the neuro-ophthalmology of multiple sclerosis. Int Rev Neurobiol 2007;79:633-63.

Kawasaki A, Purvin VA. Idiopathic chiasmal neuritis: clinical features and prognosis. Arch Ophthalmol 2009;127:76-81.

Kazim SF, Islam M, Khan M, Hameed B, Shafqat S. Risk of multiple sclerosis after idiopathic optic neuritis in a Pakistani population. Can J Neurol Sci 2010;37(2):258-63.

Keltner JL, Johnson CA, Spurr JO, Beck RW, Optic Neuritis Study Group. Baseline visual field profile of optic neuritis. The experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial. Arch Ophthalmol 1993;111:231-4.**

Kennedy C. Optic neuritis in children. Trans Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol 1960;64:700-12.

Kermode AG, Moseley IF, Kendall BE, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in Leber's optic neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:671-4.

Kerrison JB. Optic neuropathies caused by toxins and adverse drug reactions. Ophthalmol Clin N Am 2004;17:481-8.

Kidd D, Burton B, Plant GT, Graham EM. Chronic relapsing inflammatory optic neuropathy (CRION). Brain 2003;126(Pt 2):276-84.

Kinnunen E, Konttinen YT, Bergroth V, Kemppinen P. Immunological studies on patients with optic neuritis without evidence of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 1989;90:43-52.

Kira J, Kanai T, Nishimura Y, et al. Western versus Asian types of multiple sclerosis: Immunogenetically and clinically distinct disorders. Ann Neurol 1996;40:569-74.

Kivisakk P, Tian W, Matusevicius D, Link H, Soderstrom M. Optic neuritis and cytokines. No relation to MRI abnormalities and oligoclonal bands. Neurology 1998;50:217-23.

Klistorner A, Arvind H, Nguyen T, et al. Multifocal VEP and OCT in optic neuritis: a topographical study of the structure-function relationship. Doc Ophthalmol 2009;118(2):129-37.

Koch HJ, Steinbrecher A. Seasonal pattern of births in patients with optic neuritis. Chronobiol Int 2005;22:945-8.

Kriss A, Francis DA, Cuendet F, et al. Recovery after optic neuritis in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988;51:1253-8.

Kurtzke JF. Clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, editors. Handbook of clinical neurology. Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases. New York: Elsevier, 1970:161-216.**

Kurtzke JF. Optic neuritis or multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol 1985;42:704-10.

Lana-Peixoto MA, Andrade GC. The clinical profile of childhood optic neuritis. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2001;59:311-7.

Lana-Peixoto MA, Lana-Peixoto MI. The risk of multiple sclerosis developing in patients with isolated idiopathic optic neuritis in Brazil. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1991;49:377-83.

Lennon VA, Wingerchuk DM, Kryzer TJ, et al. A serum autoantibody marker of neuromyelitis optica: distinction from multiple sclerosis. Lancet 2004;364:2106-12.**

Lepore FE. The origin of pain in optic neuritis. Determinants of pain in 101 eyes with optic neuritis. Arch Neurol 1991;48:748-9.

Lesser RL, Kornmehl EW, Pachner AR, et al. Neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of Lyme disease. Ophthalmology 1990;97:699-706.

Leszkowska M, Lukaszewska SA, Kaluzny J. Seasonal occurrence of optic neuritis. Klin Oczna 1988;90:20-2.

Lightman S, McDonald WI, Bird AC, et al. Retinal venous sheathing in optic neuritis: its significance for the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Brain 1987;110:405-14.

Lin YC, Wang AG, Yen MY. Systemic lupus erythematosus-associated optic neuritis: clinical experience and literature review. Acta Ophthalmol 2009;87(2):204-10.

Lucchinetti CF, Kiers L, O'Duffy A, et al. Risk factors for developing multiple sclerosis after childhood optic neuritis. Neurology 1997;49:1413-8.

MacFadyen DJ, Drance SM, Douglas GR, Airaksinen PJ, Mawson DK, Paty DW. The retinal nerve fiber layer, neuroretinal rim area, and visual evoked potentials in MS. Neurology 1988;38:1353-8.

Malinowski SM, Pulido JS, Folk JC. Long-term visual outcome and complications associated with pars planitis. Ophthalmology 1993;100:818-24.

Mapelli G, Pavoni M, De PP, Modestino R, Pavoni V. Progression of optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis: a prospective study in an Italian population. Neuroepidemiology 1991;10:117-21.

Meadows SP. Retrobulbar and optic neuritis in childhood and adolescence. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1969;89:603-39.

Merle H, Olindo S, Bonnan M, et al. Natural history of the visual impairment of relapsing neuromyelitis optica. Ophthalmology 2006;114:810-5. PMID:17141316.

Miller DH, Newton MR, van der Poel JC, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve in optic neuritis. Neurology 1988a;38:175-9.

Miller DH, Ormerod IE, McDonald WI, et al. The early risk of multiple sclerosis after optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1988b;51:1569-71.

Miller NR. Walsh and Hoyt’s clinical neuro-ophthalmology. 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1982.

Mojon DS, Rosler KM, Oetliker H. A bedside test to determine motion stereopsis using the Pulfrich phenomenon. Ophthalmology 1998;105:1337-44.

Morrissey SP, Miller DH, Kendall BE, et al. The significance of brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities at presentation with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Brain 1993;116:135-46.

Moschos M, Manesis E, Panagakis E, Brouzas D, Hadziyannis S, Theodossiadis G. The effect of low-dose interferon treatment on visual evoked potentials. Doc Ophthalmol 1998;94:215-21.

Nadkarni N, Lisak RP. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with bilateral optic neuritis and central white matter disease. Neurology 1993;43:842-3.

Naismith RT, Tutlam NT, Xu J, et al. Optical coherence tomography is less sensitive than visual evoked potentials in optic neuritis. Neurology 2009;73(1):46-52.

Navikas V, Link H. Review: cytokines and the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res 1996;45:322-33.

Nilsson P, Larsson EM, Maly-Sundgren P, Perfekt R, Sandberg-Wollheim M. Predicting the outcome of optic neuritis: evaluation of risk factors after 30 years of follow-up. J Neurol 2005;252:396-402.

Noseworthy JH, O’Brien PC, Petterson TM, et al. A randomized trial of intravenous immunoglobulin in inflammatory demyelinating optic neuritis. Neurology 2001;46:1514-22.

Optic Neuritis Study Group. Multiple sclerosis risk after optic neuritis. Arch Neurol 2008;65:727-32.

Ormerod IE, McDonald WI, du Boulay GH, et al. Disseminated lesions at presentation in patients with optic neuritis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986;49:124-7.

Parkin PJ, Hierons R, McDonald WI. Bilateral optic neuritis. A long-term follow-up. Brain 1984;107:951-64.

Parmley VC, Schiffman JS, Maitland CG, Miller NR, Dreyer RF, Hoyt WF. Does neuroretinitis rule out multiple sclerosis? Arch Neurol 1987;44:1045-8.

Paty DW, Oger JJ, Kastrukoff LF, et al. MRI in the diagnosis of MS: a prospective study with comparison of clinical evaluation, evoked potentials, oligoclonal banding, and CT. Neurology 1988;38:180-5.

Petersen AA, Sellebjerg F, Frederiksen J, Olesen J, Vejlsgaard GL. Soluble ICAM-1, demyelination, and inflammation in multiple sclerosis and acute optic neuritis. J Neuroimmunol 1998;88(1-2):120-7.

Phillips PH, Newman NJ, Lynn MJ. Optic neuritis in African Americans. Arch Neurol 1998;55:186-92.

Pirko I, Blauwet LK, Lesnick TG, et al. The natural history of recurrent optic neuritis. Arch Neurol 2004;61:1401-5.

Pittock SJ, Lucchinetti CF. Inflammatory transverse myelitis: evolving concepts. Curr Opin Neurol 2006;19:362-8.

Plant GT. Optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Curr Opin Neurol 2008;21(1):16-21.

Pokroy R, Modi G, Saffer D. Optic neuritis in an urban black African community. Eye 2001;15:469-73.

Potter NT, Bigazzi PE. Acute optic neuritis associated with immunization with the CNS myelin proteolipid protein. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992;33:1717-22.

Prieto JF, Dios E, Gutierrez JM, Mayo A, Calonge M, Hereras JM. Pars planitis: epidemiology, treatment, and association with multiple sclerosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2001;9:93-102.

Pula JH, Javed A. Multiple sclerosis. Part 2: ophthalmic issues in MS therapy. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2009;20(6):476-81.

Pula JH, Reder AT. Multiple sclerosis. Part I: neuro-ophthalmic manifestations. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2009;20(6):467-75.

Raz N, Dotan S, Chokron S, Ben-Hur T, Levin N. Demyelination affects temporal aspects of perception: an optic neuritis study. Ann Neurol 2012;71(4):531-8.

Reder AT, Thapar M, Jensen MA. A reduction in serum glucocorticoids provokes experimental allergic encephalomyelitis: implications for treatment of inflammatory brain disease. Neurology 1994;44(12):2289-94.**

Riikonen R, Donner M, Erkkila H. Optic neuritis in children and its relationship to multiple sclerosis: a clinical study of 21 children. Dev Med Child Neurol 1988;30:349-59.

Rizzo JF 3rd, Andreoli CM, Rabinov JD. Use of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate optic neuritis and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. Ophthalmology 2002;109:1679-84.

Rizzo JF, Lessell S. Risk of developing multiple sclerosis after uncomplicated optic neuritis: a long-term prospective study. Neurology 1988;38:185-90.

Rodriguez M, Siva A, Cross SA, O'Brien PC, Kurland LT. Optic neuritis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Neurology 1995;45:244-50.

Roed H, Frederiksen J, Langkilde A, Sorensen TL, Lauritzen M, Sellebjerg F. Systemic T-cell activation in acute clinically isolated optic neuritis. J Neuroimmunol 2005a;162:165-72.

Roed HG, Langkilde A, Sellebjerg F, et al. A double-blind, randomized trial of IV immunoglobulin treatment in acute optic neuritis. Neurology 2005b;64:804-10.

Roesner S, Appel R, Gbadamosi J, Martin R, Heesen C. Treatment of steroid-unresponsive optic neuritis with plasma exchange. Acta Neurol Scand 2012;126(2):103-8.

Rostasy K, Mader S, Schanda K, et al. Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in pediatric patients with optic neuritis. Arch Neurol 2012;69(6):752-6.

Rudick RA, Jacobs L, Kinkel PR, Kinkel WR. Isolated idiopathic optic neuritis. Analysis of free kappa-light chains in cerebrospinal fluid and correlation with nuclear magnetic resonance findings. Arch Neurol 1986;43:456-8.

Sandberg-Wollheim M, Bynke H, Cronqvist S, Holtas S, Platz P, Ryder LP. A long-term prospective study of optic neuritis: evaluation of risk factors. Ann Neurol 1990;27:386-93.

Sanders EA, van Lith GH. Optic neuritis, confirmed by visual evoked response, and the risk for multiple sclerosis: a prospective survey (Letter). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1989;52:799-800.

Scherokman BJ, Selhorst JB, Waybright EA, et al. Improved optic nerve conduction with ingestion of ice water. Ann Neurol 1985;17:418-9.**

Scholl GB, Song HS, Wray SH. Uhthoff's symptom in optic neuritis: relationship to magnetic resonance imaging and development of multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 1991;30:180-4.**

Sedwick LA. Optic neuritis. Neurol Clin 1991;9:97-114.

Selhorst JB, Saul RF. Uhthoff and his symptom. J Neuroophthalmol 1995;15(2):63-9.**

Sellebjerg F, Frederiksen JL. IgG index or oligoclonal bands in the diagnosis of disseminated sclerosis. Ugeskr Laeger 1993;155:558-60.

Sellebjerg F, Madsen HO, Frederiksen JL, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A. Acute optic neuritis: myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein antibodies, affinity, and the HLA system. Ann Neurol 1995;38(6):943-50.

Shannon P, Becker L, Deck J. Evidence of widespread axonal pathology in Wolfram syndrome. Acta Neuropathol 1999;98:304-8.

Sibley WA. The IFN-Beta Multiple Sclerosis Study Group. Interferon beta-1b is effective in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. I. Clinical results of a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 1993;43:655-61.

Skov AG, Skov T, Frederiksen JL. Oligoclonal bands predict multiple sclerosis after optic neuritis: a literature survey. Mult Scler 2011;17(4):404-10.

Slamovits TL, Macklin R, Beck RW, Frenkel M, Lim JI, Hillman DS. What to tell the patient with optic neuritis about multiple sclerosis. Surv Ophthalmol 1991;36:47-50.

Sobaci G, Demirkaya S, Gundogan FC, Mutlu FM. Stereoacuity testing discloses abnormalities in multiple sclerosis without optic neuritis. J Neuroophthalmol 2009;29(3):197-202.

Soderstrom M. The clinical and paraclinical profile of optic neuritis: a prospective study. Ital J Neurol Sci 1995;16(3):167-76.

Soderstrom M, Link H, Sun JB, et al. T cells recognizing multiple peptides of myelin basic protein are found in blood and enriched in cerebrospinal fluid in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Scand J Immunol 1993a;37:355-68.

Soderstrom M, Link H, Xu Z, Fredrikson S. Optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis: anti-MBP peptide antibody-secreting cells are accumulated in CSF. Neurology 1993b;43:1215-22.

Sorensen PS, Lycke J, Eralinna JP, et al. Simvastatin as add-on therapy to interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (SIMCOMBIN study): a placebo-controlled randomised phase 4 trial. Lancet Neurol 2011;10(8):691-701.**

Spoor TC, Rockwell DL. Treatment of optic neuritis with intravenous megadose corticosteroids. A conservative series. Ophthamol 1988;95:131-4.

Stadt D, Kappos L, Rohrbach E, Heun R, Ratzka M. Occurrence of MRI abnormalities in patients with isolated optic neuritis. Eur Neurol 1990;30:305-9.

Swanton JK, Fernando K, Dalton CM, et al. Is the frequency of abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging in isolated optic neuritis related to the prevalence of multiple sclerosis? A global comparison. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2006;77:1070-2.

Swanton JK, Fernando K, Dalton CM, et al. Early MRI in optic neuritis: the risk for disability. Neurology 2009;72(6):542-50.

Swart S, Millac P. A comparison of flight of colours with visually evoked responses in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:550-1.

Swartz NG, Beck RW, Savino PJ, et al. Pain in anterior ischemic neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol 1995;15(1):9-10.

Taub RG, Rucker CW. The relationship of retrobulbar neuritis to multiple sclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol 1954;37:494-7.

Tintore M, Rovira A, Rio J, et al. Is optic neuritis more benign than other first attacks in multiple sclerosis. Ann Neurol 2005;57:210-5.

Toosy AT, Hickman SJ, Miszkiel KA, et al. Adaptive cortical plasticity in higher visual areas after acute optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 2005;57:622-33.

Toosy AT, Werring DJ, Bullmore ET, et al. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the cortical response to photic stimulation in humans following optic neuritis recovery. Neurosci Lett 2002;330:255-9.

Tourbah A, Stievenart JL, Abanou A, et al. Normal-appearing white matter in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis: a comparative proton spectroscopy study. Neuroradiology 1999;41:738-43.

Towle VL, Witt JC, Nader SH, Reder AT, Foust R, Spire JP. Three-dimensional human pattern visual evoked potentials. II. Multiple sclerosis patients. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1991;80:339-46.

Trip SA, Schlottmann PG, Jones SJ, et al. Retinal nerve fiber layer axonal loss and visual dysfunction in optic neuritis. Ann Neurol 2005;58:383-91.

Tsakiri A, Kallenbach K, Fuglo D, Wanscher B, et al. Simvastatin improves final visual outcome in acute optic neuritis: a randomized study. Mult Scler 2012;18(1):72-81.

Tsakiri A, Tsiantoulas D, Frederiksen J, Svane IM. Increased immunopotency of monocyte derived dendritic cells from patients with optic neuritis is inhibited in vitro by simvastatin. Exp Neurol 2010;221(2):320-8.

Tselis A, Perumal J, Caon C, et al. Treatment of corticosteroid refractory optic neuritis in multiple sclerosis patients with intravenous immunoglobulin. Eur J Neurol 2008;15:1163-7.

Tumani H, Tourtellotte WW, Peter JB, Felgenhauer K, Group TONS. Acute optic neuritis: combined immunological markers and magnetic resonance imaging predict subsequent development of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sci 1998;155:44-9.

van Diemen HM, Lanting P, Koetsier JC, Strijers RL, van Walbeek HK, Polman CH. Evaluation of the visual system in multiple sclerosis: a comparative study of diagnostic tests. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1992a;94:191-5.

van Diemen HM, van Dongen MM, Dammers JH, Polman CH. Increased visual impairment after exercise (Uhthoff's phenomenon) in multiple sclerosis: therapeutic possibilities. Eur Neurol 1992b;32:231-4.

Van Engelen B, Hommes OR, Pinckers A, et al. Improved vision after intravenous immunoglobulin in stable demyelinating optic neuritis. (Letter). Ann Neurol 1992;32:834-5.

Vanopdenbosch L, Dubois B, D’Hooghe MB, Meire F, Carton H. Mitochondrial mutations of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy: a risk factor for multiple sclerosis. J Neurol 2000;247:535-43.

Volpe NJ. Optic neuritis: historical aspects. J Neuroophthalmol 2001;21:302-9.

Wakakura M, Minei-Higa R, Oono S, et al. Baseline features of idiopathic optic neuritis as determined by a multicenter treatment trial in Japan. Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial Multicenter Cooperative Research Group (ONMRG). Jpn J Ophthalmol 1999;43:127-32.

Warren KG, Catz I. Relative frequency of autoantibodies to myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein in optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurol Sci 1994;121:66-73.

Warren KG, Catz I, Shutt K. Optic neuritis anti-myelin basic protein synthetic peptide specificity. J Neurol Sci 1992;109:88-95.

Weinshenker BG, Rice GA, Noseworthy JH, Carriere W, Baskerville J, Ebers GC. The natural history of multiple sclerosis: a geographically based study. Brain 1991;114:1045-56.

Werring DJ, Bullmore ET, Toosy AT, et al. Recovery from optic neuritis is associated with a change in the distribution of cerebral response to visual stimulation: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2000;68:441-9.

White RR. The etiology and neurological complications of retinal vasculitis. Brain 1961;84:262-73.

Wilejto M, Shroff M, Buncie JR, Kennedy J, Goia C, Banwell B. The clinical features, MRI findings, and outcome of optic neuritis in children. Neurology 2006;67:258-62.**

Woung LC, Wakakura M, Ishikawa S. Critical flicker frequency in acute and recovered optic neuritis. Jpn J Ophthalmol 1993;37:122-9.

**References especially recommended by the author or editor for general reading.

In This Article

Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
References cited
Web resources