Normal-pressure hydrocephalus

Etiology
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By Peter Hedera MD and Robert P Friedland MD

Approximately one half of all cases of normal-pressure hydrocephalus are idiopathic without apparent cause. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, head trauma, infectious or carcinomatous meningitis, and elevated CSF protein levels (including elevation due to intraspinal tumors) are causes of secondary normal-pressure hydrocephalus (Black 1990). Normal-pressure hydrocephalus may also result from aqueductal stenosis, arachnoid cysts of the third and fourth ventricles, basilar artery ectasia, and intracranial and spinal tumors. A familial form of normal-pressure hydrocephalus with autosomal dominant inheritance has been described, and some patients also had coexisting essential tremor (Zhang et al 2010; McGirr and Cusimano 2012).

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors