Normal-pressure hydrocephalus

Historical note and nomenclature
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By Peter Hedera MD and Robert P Friedland MD

The triad of progressive dementia, gait disturbances, and urinary incontinence was originally described as a distinct syndrome by Adams and colleagues (Adams et al 1965; Hakim and Adams 1965). Several other terms have been used to describe this condition, reflecting uncertainties about the pathogenesis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus: "communicating," "low-pressure," "nonobstructive," "internal," "tension," "hydrostatic," "intermittent-tension," and "variotensive" hydrocephalus. The eponym "Hakim-Adams syndrome" is also occasionally used.