Normal-pressure hydrocephalus

Historical note and nomenclature
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By Peter Hedera MD and Robert P Friedland MD

The triad of progressive dementia, gait disturbances, and urinary incontinence was originally described as a distinct syndrome by Adams and colleagues (Adams et al 1965; Hakim and Adams 1965). Several other terms have been used to describe this condition, reflecting uncertainties about the pathogenesis of normal-pressure hydrocephalus: "communicating," "low-pressure," "nonobstructive," "internal," "tension," "hydrostatic," "intermittent-tension," and "variotensive" hydrocephalus. The eponym "Hakim-Adams syndrome" is also occasionally used.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors