Intellectual disability

Introduction
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By Mihee J Bay MD and Paul H Lipkin MD

Intellectual disability is also known as or subsumes Learning disability. -ed.

Over the past decade, important changes have been made in disability terminology, resulting in the renaming of mental retardation to intellectual disability. Most recently, newly published DSM-5 from the American Psychiatric Association has made revision to its diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability. Medical science has also developed a better understanding of the causes of this disability with major impact on a patient’s life. Drs. Mihee Bay and Paul Lipkin from the Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine review the updated terminology and definitions, the most recent guidelines for the diagnostic evaluation of intellectual disability, and its ongoing management in this update of this clinical summary, formerly named mental retardation.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors