Hyperventilation syndrome

Introduction
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By Randolph W Evans MD

Hyperventilation syndrome is one of the most common causes of dizziness and paresthesias presenting to neurologists, and yet, it is underdiagnosed. Interestingly, hyperventilation not infrequently produces predominantly unilateral paresthesias that are more often on the left side, which can be confused with partial seizures, cerebrovascular disease, and multiple sclerosis. Patients may report a variety of psychological complaints, including anxiety, nervousness, unreality, disorientation, or feeling "spacy." Impairment of concentration and memory may be described as part of episodes. Déjà vu or auditory and visual hallucinations can rarely occur.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
References cited
Contributors