HIV-associated dementia

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By Walter Royal III MD and Diana L Vargas MD

HIV-associated dementia is also known as AIDS dementia complex. -ed.

Key Points

  • HIV-associated dementia is, untreated, a progressive clinical syndrome that occurs as a primary manifestation of HIV infection.
  • The prevalence of the disorder has increased with the introduction of effective antiretroviral combination therapies and increased survival of infected individuals.
  • Recently recommended approaches for diagnosis allow for the categorization of individuals as having impairment that can range from mild to very severe, which has prognostic implications.
  • Effective control of the progression of neurocognitive impairment is linked to success in treating the underlying HIV-1 infection and in managing symptoms using currently available drug therapies.

In This Article

Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
References cited