The aim of gene therapy in stroke is to prevent secondary damage after cerebral infarction. Treatments are also aimed at correcting the pathology in blood vessels supplying the brain. This article describes various experimental techniques for gene transfer in cerebrovascular disorders. Direct gene transfer to the brain in acute infarction is unlikely to be practical, but implantation of genetically modified cells releasing neurotrophic factors may aid in the recovery in chronic poststroke stage. Gene therapy also has promising applications in diseases of blood vessels supplying the brain.