Drug-induced sleep disorders

Introduction
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By K K Jain MD

A large number of drugs are associated with sleep disorders. This article starts with a classification of various drug-induced sleep disorders and lists drugs associated with each. Some sleep disorders, such as sleepwalking, have been associated with the use of hypnotics for insomnia. Pathomechanism is described when known. This knowledge may help in the modification of drug therapy or alternative medications.

Key Points

  • Several sleep disorders have been reported as secondary to adverse effects of drugs.
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia are the most common of these adverse effects but disorders of breathing and movement during sleep may also occur.
  • Insomnia may occur due to use of prescription or recreational drugs as well as caffeine and alcohol.
  • Recognition of drug-induced sleep disorders and their distinction from primary sleep disorders and sleep disturbances that occur during the course of neurologic diseases is important for the management of patients.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors