Diabetic neuropathies

References cited
Article section 12 of 13.  Previous  Next

By Bashar Katirji MD

Airey M, Bennett C, Nicolucci A, Williams R. Aldose reductase inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;(2):CD002182.

Albers JW, Herman WH, Pop-Busui R, et al. Effect of prior intensive insulin treatment during the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) on peripheral neuropathy in type 1 diabetes during the epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications (EDIC) study. Diabetes Care 2010;33:1090-6.

Althaus J. On sclerosis of the spinal cord, including locomotor ataxy, spastic spinal paralysis and other system diseases of the spinal cord: their pathology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. London: Green & Company; 1885.

Ametoy AS, Barinov A, Dyck PJ, et al. The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid: the SYDNEY trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26(3):770-6.

Anonymous. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med 1993;329(14):977-86.

Anonymous. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on measures of autonomic nervous system function in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Diabetologia 1998a;41:416-23.

Anonymous. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Lancet 1998b;352:837-53.

Archer AG, Watkins PJ, Thomas PK, Sharma AK, Payan J. The natural history of acute painful neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983;46:491-9.

Asbury AK. Proximal diabetic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 1977;2:179-80.

Auche M. Des alterations des nerfs périphériques. Arch Med Exp Anat Pathol 1890;2:635.

Azad N, Emanuele NV, Abraira C, et al. The effects of intensive glycemic control on neuropathy in the VA cooperative study on type II diabetes mellitus (VA CSDM). J Diabetes Complications 1999;13(5-6):307-13.

Boulton AJ. The diabetic foot: from art to science. The 18th Camillo Golgi lecture. Diabetologia 2004;47(8):1343-53.

Boulton AJ, Malik RA, Arezzo JC, Sosenko JM. Diabetic somatic neuropathies. Diabetes Care 2004;27(6):1458-86.

Boulton AJ, Vinik AI, Arezzo JC, et al. Diabetic neuropathies: a statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care 2005;28(4):956-62.

Brannagan TH. Peripheral neuropathy pain: mechanisms and treatment. J Clin Neuromuscular Disease 2003;5:61-71.

Bril V. Status of current clinical trials in diabetic polyneuropathy. Can J Neurol Sci 2001;28:191-8.

Bril V, England J, Franklin GM, et al. Evidence-based guideline: treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology 2011;76(20):1758-65.

Bril V, Nyunt M, Ngo M. Limits of the sympathetic skin response in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve 2000;23:1427-30.

Bruns L. Uber neuritische Lahmungen beim Diabetes Mellitus. Berl Klin Wochenschr 1890;27:509.

Calle-Pascual AL, Duran A, Benedi A, et al. A preventative foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2002;57(2):111-7.

Cameron N, Eaton SE, Cotter M, Tesfaye S. Vascular factors and metabolic interactions in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetalogia 2001;44(11):1973-88.

Caravati CM. Insulin neuritis: a case report. Va Med Mon 1933;59:745-6.

Chaudhry V, Russell J, Belzberg A. Decompressive surgery of lower limbs for symmetrical diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;(3):CD006152.

Chong PS, Cros DP. Technology literature review: quantitative sensory testing. Muscle Nerve 2004;29(5):734-47.

Clayburgh RH, Beckenbaugh RD, Dobyns JH. Carpal tunnel release in patients with diffuse peripheral neuropathy. J Hand Surg 1987;12A:380-3.

Cocito D, Ciaramitaro P, Isoardo G. Intravenous immunoglobulin as first treatment in diabetics with concomitant distal symmetric axonal polyneuropathy and CIDP. J Neurol 2002;249:719-22.

Coppack SW, Watkins PJ. The natural history of diabetic femoral neuropathy. Q J Med 1991;79:307-13.

Donaghy M. Diabetic proximal neuropathy: therapy and prognosis. Q J Med 1991;79:287-8.

Duchen LW, Anjorin A, Watkins PJ, Mackay JD. Pathology of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. Ann Int Med 1980;92:301-3.

Dyck PJ, Davies JL, Wilson DM, Service FJ, O'Brien PC. Risk factors for severity of diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care 1999b;22:1479-86.

Dyck PJ, Kratz KM, Karnes JL, et al. The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Neurology 1993;43:817-24.

Dyck PJ, Melton LJ III, O'Brien PC, Service FJ. Approaches to improve epidemiological studies of diabetic neuropathy: insights from the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Diabetes 1997;46(Suppl 2):S5-8.

Dyck PJ, Norell JE, Dyck PJ. Microvasculitis and ischemia in diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Neurology 1999a;53:2113-21.

Dyck PJ, Norell JE, Dyck PJ. Methylprednisolone may improve lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Can J Neurol Sci 2001;28:224-7.

Dyck PJ, Windebank AJ. Diabetic and nondiabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies: new insights into pathophysiology and treatment. Muscle Nerve 2002;25(4):477-91.

Edwards JL, Vincent AM, Cheng HT, Feldman EL. Diabetic neuropathy: mechanisms to management. Pharmacol Ther 2008;120(1):1-34.

Ejskjaer N, Zanone MM, Peakman M. Autoimmunity in diabetic autonomic neuropathy: does the immune system get on your nerves? Diabet Med 1998;15:723-9.

England JD, Gronseth GS, Franklin G, et al. Practice Parameter: evaluation of distal symmetric polyneuropathy: role of autonomic testing, nerve biopsy, and skin biopsy (an evidence-based review). Report of the American Academy of Neurology, American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology 2009;72(2):177-84.

Feldman EL, Sullivan KA, Stevens MJ. Polyolpathway: aldose reductase inhibitors - hope for the future? In: Gries FA, Cameron NE, Low PA, Ziegler D, editors. Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy. Stuttgart: Thieme,2003:112-5.

Forrest KY, Maser RE, Pambianco G, Becker DJ, Orchard TJ. Hypertension as a risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 1997;46:665-70.

Gaede P, Vedel P, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Intensified multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: the Steno 2 randomised study. Lancet 1999;353(9153):617-22.

Galer BS. Neuropathic pain of peripheral origin: advances in pharmacologic treatment. Neurology 1995;45:S17-25.

Gibbons CH, Freeman R. Treatment-induced diabetic neuropathy: a reversible painful autonomic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 2010;67(4):534-41.

Gorson KC, Ropper AH, Adelman LS, Weinberg DH. Influence of diabetes mellitus on chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve 2000;23:37-43.

Greco D, Gambina F, Pisciotta M, Abrignani M, Maggio F. Clinical characteristics and associated comorbidities in diabetic patients with cranial nerve palsies. J Endocrinol Invest 2012;35(2):146-9.

Gregersen G. Variations in motor conduction velocity produced by acute changes of the metabolic state in diabetic patients. Diabetologia 1968;4:273-7.

Gries FA, Cameron NE, Low PA, Ziegler D, editors. Textbook of diabetic neuropathy. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme, 2003.

Griffin JW, McArthur JC, Polydefkis M. Assessment of cutaneous innervation by skin biopsies. Curr Opin Neurol 2001;14(5):655-9.

Herrmann DN, Griffin JW, Hauer P, Cornblath DR, McArthur JC. Epidermal nerve fiber density and sural nerve morphometry in peripheral neuropathies. Neurology 1999;53(8):1634-40.

Hyllienmark L, Golster H, Samuelssoh U, Ludvigsson J. Nerve conduction defects are retarded by tight metabolic control in type 1 diabetes. Muscle Nerve 2001;24:240-6.

Jaradeh SS, Prieto TE, Lobeck LJ. Progressive polyradiculoneuropathy in diabetes: correlation of variables and clinical outcome after immunotherapy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;67:607-12.

Kennedy W, Wendelschafer-Crabb G. Unmyelinated nerves: skin biopsy and skin blister methods. In: Gries FA, Cameron NE, Low PA, Ziegler D, editors. Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme, 2003:194-8.

Kluding PM, Pasnoor M, Singh R, et al. The effect of exercise on neuropathic symptoms, nerve function, and cutaneous innervation in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. J Diabet Complications 2012;26(5):424-9.

Kraus WM. Involvement of the peripheral neurons in diabetes mellitus. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1922;7:202.

Krendel DA, Costigan DA, Hopkins LC. Successful treatment of neuropathies in patients with diabetes mellitus. Arch Neurol 1995;52:1053-61.

Lasker RD. The diabetes control and complications trial. Implications for policy and practice. N Engl J Med1993;329(14):1035-6.

Lauria G, Bakkers M, Schmitz C, et al. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density at the distal leg: a worldwide normative reference study. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2010;15(3):202-7.

Leyden E. Entzundung der peripheren Nerven. Deut Militar Zeitsch 1887;17:49.

Llewelyn JG, Thomas PK, Fonseca V, King RH, Dandona P. Acute painful diabetic neuropathy precipitated by strict glycaemic control. Acta Neuropathol 1986;72(2):157-63.

Llewelyn JG, Thomas PK, King RH. Epineurial microvasculitis in proximal diabetic neuropathy. J Neurol 1998;245:159-65.

Low PA. Laboratory evaluation of autonomic function. In: Low PA, editor. Clinical autonomic disorders. 2nd ed. New York: Lippincott-Raven, 1997:179-208.

Low PA. Testing the autonomic nervous system. Semin Neurol 2003;23:407-421.

Low PA, Benrud-Larsen LM, Sletten DM, et al. Autonomic symptoms and diabetic neuropathy: a population-based study. Diabetes Care 2004;27(12):2942-7.

Macaré van Maurik JF, van Hal M, van Eijk RP, Kon M, Peters EJ. Value of surgical decompression of compressed nerves in the lower extremity in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. A randomized controlled trial. Plast Reconstr Surg 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

Malcolm A, Camilleri M. Treatment of diabetic gastroparesis and diarrhea. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, editors. Diabetic neuropathy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:517-29.

Maser RE, Steenkiste AR, Dorman JS, et al. Epidemiological correlates of diabetic neuropathy. Report from Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study. Diabetes 1989;38:1456-61.

Massie R, Mauermann ML, Staff NP, et al. Diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy: a distinct syndrome expanding the spectrum of diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies. Brain 2012;135(Pt 10):3074-88.

Navarro X, Sutherland DE, Kennedy WR. Long-term effects of pancreatic transplantation on diabetic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 1997;42:727-36.

Niakan E, Harati Y. Sympathetic skin response in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Muscle Nerve 1988;11:261-4.

Oldenburg O, Kribben A, Baumgart D, Philipp T, Erbel R, Cohen MV. Treatment of orthostatic hypotension. current opinion in pharmacology 2002;2:740-7.

Panoutsopoulou IG, Wendelschafer-Crabb G, Hodges JS, Kennedy WR. Skin blister and skin biopsy to quantify epidermal nerves: a comparative study. Neurology 2009;72(14):1205-10.

Parisi TJ, Mandrekar J, Dyck PJ, Klein CJ. Meralgia paresthetica: relation to obesity, advanced age, and diabetes mellitus. Neurology 2011;77(16):1538-42.

Perkins BA, Bril V. Diabetic neuropathy: a review emphasizing diagnostic methods. Clin Neurophysiol 2003;114(7):1167-75.

Pirart J. Diabetes mellitus and its degenerative complications: a prospective study of 4,400 patients between 1947 and 1973. Diabetes Care 1978;1:168-88, 252-63.

Pittenger GL, Ray M, Burcus NI, et al. Intraepidermal nerve fibers are indicators of small-fiber neuropathy in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Diabetes Care 2004;27(8):1974-9.

Polydefkis M, Griffin JW, McArthur J. New insights into diabetic polyneuropathy. JAMA 2003;290(10):1371-6.

Pryce TD. On diabetic neuritis with a clinical and pathological description of three cases of diabetic pseudo-tabes. Brain 1893;16:416.

Reichard P, Nilsson BY, Rosenqvist U. The effect of long-term intensified insulin treatment on the development of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993;329:304-9.

Rosoklija GB, Dwork AJ, Younger DS, Karlikaya G, Latov N, Hays AP. Local activation of the complement system in endoneurial microvessels of diabetic neuropathy. Acta Neuropathol 2000;99(1):55-62.

Said G, Goulon-Goeau C, Lacroix C, Moulonguet A. Nerve biopsy findings in different patterns of proximal diabetic neuropathy. Ann Neurol 1994;35:559-69.

Sampson MJ, Wilson S, Karagiannis P, Edmonds M, Watkins PJ. Progression of diabetic autonomic neuropathy over a decade in insulin-dependent diabetics. Q J Med 1990;75(278):635-46.

Schmidt RE. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In: Gries FA, Cameron NE, Low PA, Ziegler D, editors. Textbook of Diabetic Neuropathy. Stuttgart-New York: Thieme, 2003:87-91.

Sharma KR, Cross J, Ayyar DR, Martinez-Arizala A, Bradley WG. Diabetic demyelinating polyneuropathy responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Arch Neurol 2002;59(5):751-7.

Simmons Z, Feldman EL. Update on diabetic neuropathy. Curr Opin Neurol 2002;15(5):595-603.

Smith AG, Russell J, Feldman EL, et al. Lifestyle intervention for pre-diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 2006:29(6);1294-9.

Stewart JD. Diabetic truncal neuropathy: topography of the sensory deficit. Ann Neurol 1989;25:233-8.

Stewart JD, Freeman R. Quantitative sensory testing. In: Brown WF, Bolton CF, Aminoff MJ, editors. Neuromuscular Function and Disease. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders, 2002:131-43.

Stewart JD, McKelvey R, Durcan L, Carpenter S, Karpati G. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in diabetics. J Neurol Sci 1996;142:59-64.

Sumner CJ, Sheth S, Griffin JW, Cornblath DR, Polydefkis M. The spectrum of neuropathy in diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. Neurology. 2003;60(1):108-11.

Tesfaye S, Boulton AJ, Dyck PJ, et al. Diabetic neuropathies: update on definitions, diagnostic criteria, estimation of severity, and treatments. Diabetes Care 2010;33(10):2285-93.

Tesfaye S, Stevens LK, Stephenson JM, et al. Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and its relation to glycaemic control and potential risk factors: the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study. Diabetologia 1996;39(11):1377-84.

Thomas PK. Classification, differential diagnosis, and staging of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Diabetes 1997;46(Suppl 2):S54-7.

Ubogu EE, Benatar M. Electrodiagnostic criteria for carpal tunnel syndrome in axonal polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve 2006;33(6):747-52.

Valdivia Valdivia JM, Weinand M, Maloney CT Jr, Blount AL, Dellon AL. Surgical treatment of superimposed, lower extremity, peripheral nerve entrapments with diabetic and idiopathic neuropathy. Ann Plast Surg 2013;70(6):675-9.

Valk GD, Grootenhuis PA, vanEijk TThM, Bouter LM, Bertelsmann FW. Methods for assessing diabetic polyneuropathy: validity and reproducibility of the measurement of sensory symptom severity and nerve function tests. Diab Res Clin Pract 2000;47:87-95.

Vincent AM, Hinder LM, Pop-Busui R, Feldman EL. Hyperlipidemia: a new therapeutic target for diabetic neuropathy. J Peripher Nerv Syst 2009;14(4):257-67.

Vinik A. CLINICAL REVIEW: Use of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(8):4936-45.

Vinik AI, Maser RE, Mitchell BD, Freeman R. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 2003;26(5):1553-81.

Vinik AI, Mehrabyan A. Diabetic neuropathies. Med Clin North Am 2004;88(4):947-99.

Vinik AI, Ziegler D. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy. Circulation 2007;115(3):387-97.

Watson CP, Watt-Watson JH. Treatment of neuropathic pain: focus on antidepressants, opioids and gabapentin. Pain Res Manage 1999;4:168-78.

Weston PJ, Gill GV. Is undetected autonomic dysfunction responsible for sudden death in Type 1 diabetes mellitus? The ‘dead in bed’ syndrome revisited. Diabet Med 1999;16(8):626-31.

Wilbourn AJ. Diabetic entrapment and compression neuropathies. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, editors. Diabetic neuropathy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:481-508.

Wright RA, Kaufmann HC, Perera R, et al. A double-blind, dose-response study of midodrine in neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Neurology 1998;51:120-4.

Yang CC, Bradley WG. Treatment of diabetic sexual dysfunction and cystopathy. In: Dyck PJ, Thomas PK, editors. Diabetic neuropathy. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1999:530-40.

Yuen KC, Baker NR, Rayman G. Treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy with isosorbide dinitrate spray: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Diabetes Care 2002;25(10):1699-703.

Zhang WY, Li Wan Po A. The effectiveness of topically applied capsaicin: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994:45; 517-522.

Ziegler D, Reljanovic M, Mehnert H, Gries FA. Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1999;107(7):421-30.

Zilliox L, Peltier AC, Wren PA, et al. Assessing autonomic dysfunction in early diabetic neuropathy: the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms. Neurology 2011;76(12):1099-105.

Zochodne DW, Murray MM, van der Sloot P, Riopelle RJ. Distal tibial mononeuropathy in diabetic and nondiabetic rats reared on wire cages: an experimental entrapment neuropathy. Brain Res 1995;698:130-6.

**References especially recommended by the author or editor for general reading.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
References cited
Contributors