Neuropathies include a variety of disorders that afflict diabetics fairly exclusively and are characterized by variable degrees of peripheral nerve damage. In this review of diabetic neuropathies, the wide variety of types of peripheral nerve damage and the diversity of the resulting clinical syndromes is emphasized. In terms of arresting or reversing the commonest type, chronic diabetic sensory-motor polyneuropathy, unfortunately no progress has been made. Other types of neuropathy in the diabetic, such as proximal diabetic neuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, sometimes respond to immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory treatments. Several randomized controlled studies show the efficacy of some of the newer anticonvulsant medications such as pregabalin, or antidepressants, such as duloxetine, in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.