Chronic subdural hematoma

Introduction
Article section 1 of 15.  Next

By Ravindra Kumar Garg MD

Chronic subdural hematoma is one of the most frequent neurosurgical conditions. It is frequently encountered in elderly people, (usually, after minor head trauma) and in patients on long-term anticoagulation and long-term hemodialysis. Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma tended to occur more in patients with anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. Innate immune responses play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic subdural hematoma. The most frequent presenting symptoms are headache, cognitive decline, and focal neurologic deficit. Cognitive decline includes confusional state, psychomotor slowing, gait abnormalities, and subacute dementia. Chronic subdural hematomas often present with atypical and unusual manifestations and can be difficult to diagnose. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the early diagnosis. Patients require surgical hematoma evacuation. The common surgical procedures for chronic subdural hematoma include twist drill craniostomy, burr hole evacuation, or craniotomy. Eighty percent of patients recover completely. Infrequently, hematoma may recur. Instillation of tissue plasminogen activator increases the volume of hematoma drained and significantly reduces the incidence of recurrence. A recent preliminary observation suggests that chronic subdural hematoma can be treated medically with tranexamic acid alone. Atorvastatin has recently been found effective in reducing chronic subdural hematoma. In this clinical summary, Dr. Ravindra Kumar Garg, Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Uttar Pradesh in Lucknow, India, discusses the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, impact on outcome, and available treatments for chronic subdural hematoma.

Key Points

  • Almost all chronic subdural hematomas result from modest cranial trauma.
  • The most frequent presenting symptoms are headache, cognitive decline, gait abnormalities, and hemiparesis.
  • A high index of suspicion is important for diagnosis.
  • The outcome is generally favorable with neurosurgical evacuation of hematoma.
  • However, the incidence of recurrent hematoma varies from 3.7% to 30% after surgery.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors