Cerebral embolism

Introduction
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By Seemant Chaturvedi MD

Cerebral embolism is also known as or subsumes Atheroembolic stroke, Cardioembolic stroke, Embolic stroke, and Hemorrhagic infarction. -ed.

Cardioembolic stroke is one of the more devastating causes of stroke. In recent years, significant progress has been made in identifying patients at high risk for cardioembolic stroke. With the aging of the population, an increasing number of patients are at risk for cardioembolism. In this update, Dr. Seemant Chaturvedi, Professor of Neurology and Director of the Comprehensive Stroke Program at Wayne State University, provides an update on cardioembolic stroke prevention. Data from recent trials on stroke prevention, including information on novel oral anticoagulants, in atrial fibrillation patients are provided. In addition, recent studies of closure devices for patent foramen ovale are reviewed. Finally, new information is provided regarding antithrombotic therapy for patients with reduced cardiac ejection fraction.

Key Points

  • Cardioembolic strokes are more severe clinically than other forms of stroke.
  • Atrial fibrillation is the leading source of cardioembolic stroke.
  • The proportion of cardioembolic strokes will increase with the aging of the population.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Clinical vignette
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
Pregnancy
Anesthesia
References cited
Contributors