Breath-holding spells

Introduction
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By Suzanne Strickland MD

Breath-holding spells, described more than 400 years ago, are paroxysmal clinical events that occur between the ages of 6 months and 4 to 6 years, in which vigorous crying is interrupted by end-expiratory apnea, followed by cyanosis or pallor, loss of consciousness, and occasionally by a clonic seizure or myoclonic movements. Though virtually always triggered by a stimulus (pain, fear, or anger), the misconception still exists that the child “does it on purpose.” They are terrifying to parents or caregivers, but are often dismissed by clinicians in a cavalier manner due to their benign long-term outcome and the misconception that they occur in “spoiled children.” This clinical summary reflects new studies regarding presumed autonomic dysregulation, rare occurrences of asystole, and seizures. Dr. Strickland of Georgia Health Sciences will expand on recent studies proposing possible treatment options in children with breath-holding spells.

In This Article

Introduction
Historical note and nomenclature
Clinical manifestations
Etiology
Pathogenesis and pathophysiology
Epidemiology
Prevention
Differential diagnosis
Diagnostic workup
Prognosis and complications
Management
References cited
Contributors